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[en] This paper presents a brief review of the theory and observations of the solar wind. The success of simple fluid models is contrasted with the lack of understanding of the detailed microphysics on which such fluid theories are, or should be, based. (orig.)
[en] Consideration is given to a self-consistent set of equations describing the hydrodynamic flow of solar wind in the meridional plane including the pressure of galactic cosmic rays. The hydrodynamics equations are linearized assuming a small difference of the solar wind parameters from the spherically-symmetric case. The differential equations have been obtained which describe the variations of the solar wind parameters in the meridional plane depending on the galactic cosmic ray grandients
[en] Impulsive plasma penetration has been proposed as a means by which solar wind plasma may cross the magnetopause and enter the magnetosphere. It has been predicted that plasma entry by this means will be correlated with a magnetopause penetration parameter. One of the most important signatures of plasma entry into the magnetosphere are flux transfer events (FTEs). If plasma penetration is an important mechanism in plasma entry, then it would be expected that the occurrence of flux transfer events will correlate with the penetration parameter. On the other hand, if reconnection is, as widely believed, the dominant mechanism for the entry of solar-wind plasma into the magnetosphere, then plasma entry will be correlated with the north/south IMF component. AMPTE UKS data show that the occurrence of FTE signatures is better correlated with the direction of the IMF than with the penetration parameter. Thus, impulsive plasma penetration is unlikely to be the mechanism responsible for FTEs
[en] The paper presents the results of numerical calculation of galactic cosmic ray modulation by solar wind. Calculations were carried out on the basis of diffusion model taking into account convection and adiabatic loss of particles in interplanetary space. Both isotropic and anisotropic models were used in calculations. Modulation coefficient was calculated using the data on intensity of neutron component of cosmic rays and primary cosmic rays in the stratosphere for the period 1958-1979. The form of modulation function was determined. Obtained results allow to determine the size of modulation region and dependence of solar wind speed and diffusion coefficient on distance
[en] Complete text of publication follows. By comparing theoretical results and experimental data (as well as data of observations and model experiments) we have to provide similar conditions for investigated processes and their adequate modeling. One of such factors is finiteness of instrumental resolution scales that restricts our ability to measure particles' coordinates. The consideration of this restriction generates multiparticle statistical approach to modeling of plasmas as systems with long-range interparticle interactions (e.g. [1,2]). This model operates with probability distribution function of macroscopic parameters' fluctuations. The mentioned approach is presented in the paper for collisional and non-collisional plasmas and its application to the solar wind. The dimension of statistical model (corresponding distribution function) depends on number of particles within a probing volume (on a resolution scale) and can be reduced to values determined by scales of interparticle interaction. Under some assumption this reducing process can lead to kinetic models of lower dimension. For instance, to a two-particle kinetic model for proton-electron (two-component) plasma. The application of the discussed approach to description of collisional plasma results mostly in increasing of model's dimension. The presented approximation reproduces specific features of solar plasma's parameters (density, speed, velocity distribution function, etc.) and yields results that are consistent with observations (e.g. ).