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[en] The modeling described in this report is an extension of previous fate and transport modeling for the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study. The purpose of this and the previous modeling is to provide quantitative input to the screening of remedial alternatives for the CMS/FS for this site
[en] Highlights: • Entropy stable discontinuous Galerkin method for MHD equations. • Arbitrary high order of accuracy. • Entropy stable treatment of the nonconservative source terms in the Godunov form. We present a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme with suitable quadrature rules  for ideal compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations on structural meshes. The semi-discrete scheme is analyzed to be entropy stable by using the symmetrizable version of the equations as introduced by Godunov , the entropy stable DG framework with suitable quadrature rules , the entropy conservative flux in  inside each cell and the entropy dissipative approximate Godunov type numerical flux at cell interfaces to make the scheme entropy stable. The main difficulty in the generalization of the results in  is the appearance of the non-conservative “source terms” added in the modified MHD model introduced by Godunov , which do not exist in the general hyperbolic system studied in . Special care must be taken to discretize these “source terms” adequately so that the resulting DG scheme satisfies entropy stability. Total variation diminishing / bounded (TVD/TVB) limiters and bound-preserving limiters are applied to control spurious oscillations. We demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of this new scheme on standard MHD examples.
[en] Highlights: • A universal HLLI Riemann solver for very general hyperbolic systems. • A spatial-temporally coupled GRP solver containing sufficient physics. • A useful building block to design higher order numerical schemes. The Riemann problem, and the associated generalized Riemann problem, are increasingly seen as the important building blocks for modern higher order Godunov-type schemes. In the past, building a generalized Riemann problem solver was seen as an intricately mathematical task because the associated Riemann problem is different for each hyperbolic system of interest. This paper changes that situation. The HLLI Riemann solver is a recently-proposed Riemann solver that is universal in that it is applicable to any hyperbolic system, whether in conservation form or with non-conservative products. The HLLI Riemann solver is also complete in the sense that if it is given a complete set of eigenvectors, it represents all waves with minimal dissipation. It is, therefore, very attractive to build a generalized Riemann problem solver version of the HLLI Riemann solver. This is the task that is accomplished in the present paper. We show that at second order, the generalized Riemann problem version of the HLLI Riemann solver is easy to design. Our GRP solver is also complete and universal because it inherits those good properties from original HLLI Riemann solver. We also show how our GRP solver can be adapted to the solution of hyperbolic systems with stiff source terms. Our generalized HLLI Riemann solver is easy to implement and performs robustly and well over a range of test problems. All implementation-related details are presented. Results from several stringent test problems are shown. These test problems are drawn from many different hyperbolic systems, and include hyperbolic systems in conservation form; with non-conservative products; and with stiff source terms. The present generalized Riemann problem solver performs well on all of them.
[en] The types and the forms of radioactive source term are getting a variety due to expansion of the radiation industry such as medical radiation treatments and research. of materials. For neutron sources, it is necessary to account for the neutron energy distribution to evaluate exactly the dose equivalent, because the energy range of the neutron from thermal neutrons (0.025 eV) to a few GeV. The neutron dose equivalent depends heavily on the energy of the neutrons. The neutron field spectra from a DT neutron generator at Korea Atomic Energy research Institute (KAERI) and the proton accelerators at Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS) were measured by using the Bonner sphere measurement system (BS system) and several neutron detectors. The spectrum weighted response was obtained by using the response function of the neutron detectors as given in the IAEA Technical Report Series 403 (TRS)
[en] We show that the discrete Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation with sources obtained recently by the “source generalization” method can be incorporated into the squared eigenfunction symmetry extension procedure. Moreover, using the known correspondence between Darboux-type transformations and additional independent variables, we demonstrate that the equation with sources can be derived from Hirota's discrete KP equations but in a space of higher dimension. In this way we uncover the origin of the source terms as coming from multidimensional consistency of the Hirota system itself.
[en] In this article experimental investigation is described into the spread of fission products within a nuclear power plant, which after an accident involving melting of the nucleus, will be possible in spite of prohibiting constructions for the case of severe unbalancing of generated and carried-off energy. 6 refs.; 4 figs
[en] This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF6) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and open-quotes otherclose quotes. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF6 conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992
[en] The disposed inventory estimate is perhaps the most important component of the composite analysis (CA), as it directly affects the future radiological impacts following site closure. The goal is to estimate radionuclide inventory from site inception to closure. Because of the inclusive nature of a CA, all relevant contaminants are identified and initially considered. Then, subsets of contaminants appropriate for quantitative analysis are selected. Reducing the number of radionuclides for inclusion in the quantitative analysis helps focus budget and resources on simulating only those radionuclides that are likely to contribute to the total dose to the receptor above a threshold value. Inventory is reported within the geographical boundary of the Hanford Site 200 Areas and includes contributing sources on the Central Plateau. The inventory covers the radiological inventories of historical discharges and residuals that have the potential to release after closure. The reported inventory is focused on the source terms needed for transport modeling and the evaluation of risk associated with the ground water pathway. Risk from the air pathway was considered. Inventories of sites with approved performance assessments (PAs) will be integrated using their release curves directly with vadose zone transport modeling.
[en] Most long-lived radionuclides associated with an underground nuclear test are incorporated into a melt glass and are released by glass dissolution to become part of the hydrologic source term (HST) (Pawloski et al., 2001). Although the rates of rhyolite glass dissolution are well known under conditions where the fluid is far from saturation with respect to glass, the rates are not well known under conditions where the fluid approaches saturation. These rates are commonly much lower than the far-fromsaturation rates, often by a factor greater than 100. In recent HST simulations (Pawloski et al., 2001; Pawloski et al., 2000; Tompson et al., 1999), we conservatively estimated steady-state release rates based on a far-from-saturation fluid conditions. In recent CHESHIRE near-field simulations (Pawloski et al., 2001), it was predicted that ∼30% of the nuclear melt glass dissolved over 1000 years. Although the ''far-from-saturation rate'' approach provides a conservative estimate of glass dissolution, it may greatly overestimate the rates of melt glass dissolution. At CHESHIRE, less conservative estimates suggest that only ∼1% of the nuclear melt glass will dissolve in 1000 years. Lower glass dissolution rates result in lower radionuclide release rates from nuclear melt glass. The following report documents glass dissolution experiments performed to measure glass dissolution rates close to saturation
[en] We introduce a new treatment of the difference formulation for photon radiation transport without scattering in 1d slab geometry that is closely analogous to that of Fleck and Cummings for the traditional formulation. The resulting form is free of implicit source terms and has the familiar effective scattering of the field of transport