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[en] The demand for electricity, with high growth rates and excessive optimism about continuity without abrupt fluctuations in the development model, gave rise in almost all the developed countries and also in Spain to a large increase in investment, which in many cases brought about a construction of surplus generating capacity. The 1973 oil crisis favored an initial consolidation of the nuclear power option in the larger countries such as the USA, USSR and Japan, with its maximum translation into nuclear programs at any cost like the French one. The mid-1970s Spanish forecasts were similar and extended their influence up to the beginning of the 1980s. 1 fig
[en] In this paper we estimate the willingness to pay for mix of renewable sources of electric power by means of a discrete choice experiment survey conducted in Spain in 2010. Two main categories of power supply attributes are explored: source of renewable power (wind, solar and biomass) and the origin of such power. The findings suggest that most consumers are not willing to pay a premium for increases in the shares of renewable in their electricity mix. For two of the three renewable sources considered (wind and biomass) an increase of the renewable mix would require a discount. Instead, we record positive willing to pay for increases in the share of both solar power and locally generated power. However, preferences for types of renewable (solar and wind) are found to be heterogeneous. By classifying respondents in two groups according to the implied importance of the share of renewable sources in their power mix we identify a market segment consisting of 20% of respondents that could promote renewable energy in the absence of subsidies. This is because such a segment shows willingness to pay higher than the current feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ► We evaluate the WTP for different renewable electricity sources in a Aragon. ► Average positive WTP is found for only some renewable sources. ► Specific market segments are willing to pay for specific renewable sources. ► Geographical origin is more important than renewable source.
[en] ENUSA is fuel supplier to the Spanish power plants. Its engineering group within the nuclear fuel division is responsible for reload core design and licensing, fuel assembly design and fabrication follow-up among other activities. The group has designed all the reloads for the Spanish NPPs since 1987, and the reload cores have been licensed by the regulatory authorities according to the results there obtained
[en] In Spain, as in other countries, the emergency plans associated with nuclear installations have developed over three well-defined periods. From the beginning of the national nuclear program in 1956 to the Three Mile Island-2 accident in March 1979; from TMI-2 to Chernobyl-4 in April 1986; and from Chernobyl up to the present time. The second period has been the most fruitful for development of nuclear emergency plans in Spain. During that period a Basic Plan for nuclear emergencies at national level was established. This Basic Plan follows international recommendations, mainly from the IAEA and Euratom. The Basic Plan has been adapted for each of the provinces where an NPP is located. This adaption takes into account the particular organization and means of each province, so there are Provincial Plans for nuclear emergencies. Complimentary to these plans, each municipality within a radius of 10 km from the NPP also has its own 'Municipal Plan' for nuclear emergencies
[en] This paper tries to approach the relevant role played by operational water systems in modern Spanish water law. The exploitation systems are the unit of reference for achieving an integral use of water in the basin river. Its regulation defines water policy and systematizes the uses and destinations of water resources. Hydrological, but also legal, economic, environmental, social or even political issues influence in its calculation.
[en] The commercial nuclear program in Spain dates back to the beginning of the 1960s. There are currently nine units in operation, one more has been decommissioned and a further five are in different phases of construction but under nuclear moratorium since 1983. This article gives a general overview of the program, the criteria applied, what it has meant to and required of the industry and, finally, what lessons have been learned. (author) 2 figs
[en] This Order regulates the health protection of workers in all fields, including the field of radiation. It lays down provisions to be complied with for the safety of workers involved with infrared and ultra-violet rays as well as with ionizing radiation. (NEA)
[fr]Les dispositions de cet Arrete regissent la protection sanitaire des travailleurs dans tous les domaines, y compris celui des radiations. Il contient des dispositions qui doivent etre observees pour assurer la securite et la sante des travailleurs engages dans des travaux impliquant des rayons ultraviolets et infrarouges ainsi que des rayonnements ionisants
[en] The concept of in-service inspection (ISI) has developed enormously in Spain over the last years, and now includes a series of activities beyond what is strictly understood as a mere requirement of standards. The enhanced ISI program is one which basically takes into account: simultaneous compliance with several requirements; scope widened to include those components which experience has shown are susceptible to failure; contemplation of aspects related to studies of life extension (PLEX); application of the most suitable inspection and evaluation techniques. 3 figs