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[en] Zearalenone (ZEA), a kind of nonsteroidal mycotoxin with estrogenic effects, can influence animal reproductive capacity through interfering with estrogen signaling pathway. Previous studies have shown exposure to ZEA at high doses (higher than No-Observed Effect Level, NOEL) had a significant impact on mouse sperm quality and pregnant rate, but little is known about the effect of exposure to ZEA at low doses (lower than NOEL) on mouse reproductive capacity. This study evaluated the effects of exposure to low-dose ZEA on mouse spermatogenesis and semen quality. Male mice (CD-1) of 21 days were exposed to ZEA at 20, or 40 μg/kg body weight for 14, 28 or 42 days. After exposure to ZEA for 14 days, the spermatogenic cells in seminiferous tubules were declined dose-independently; however in groups treated by ZEA for 28 days, the spermatogenic cells were declined dose-dependently. Moreover, after treatment for 28 days or 42 days, the DNA double stand break (DSB) in spermatogenic cells were increased in a dose-dependent manner in treated groups. Compared with the control group, the sperm concentration, viability, motility, and hyperactive rate in treated groups were decreased dose-dependently and time-dependently. Meanwhile, deformity and mortality rate of sperm in treated groups were increased remarkably dose-dependently too. In conclusion, low dose ZEA impaired male reproductive capacity especially in spermatogenesis and semen quality of mouse. - Highlights: • Exposure of low dose Zearalenone decrease sperm concentration, viability, motility, and hyperactive rate of male mice. • Exposure of low dose Zearalenone impairs spermatogenesis. • Exposure of low dose Zearalenone leads to DSBs incidence increase in mouse germ cells.
[en] Spermatogenesis in male albino mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy University of Health Sciences, Lahore from Apr, 2012 to Dec, 2012. Material and Methods: Thirty nine male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 - 5 gm, were used; these were randomly divided into three groups having thirteen mice in each using random numbers table. Group A served as a control and was given distilled water orally via oral gavage 10 ml per kg for 30 days. Group B was given acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/kg dissolved in 10 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Group C was given acetylsalicylic acid 25 mg/kg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose and the testes were removed, fixed in Bouin's fixative for 48 hours. Five microns thick sections of processed tissue were stained with H and E and PAS for calculation of Johnsen score and diameter of seminiferous tubules. Serum testosterone level was measured by testosterone enzyme immunoassay test kits. Results: Microscopic examination demonstrated that ASA treatment lead to statistically significant increase in the mean Johnsen score and mean diameter of seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: It was concluded from the current study that ASA treatment enhances spermatogenesis. (author)
[en] Extra testicular scrotal tumors are a rare finding in routine ultrasonographic studies. In 90% of cases, the mass is located in the spermatic cord. We present two cases of intra scrotal leiomyoma involving the lower pole of the testis at the level of the tunica vaginal is and the tail of the epididymis, respectively. Ultrasound and computed tomography were used in the study. (Author) 19 refs
[en] There is increasing evidence that cadmium (Cd) exposure can cause male subfertility and even complete infertility in mammals. Long noncoding (lnc) RNAs are critical for spermatogenesis, and their dysregulation might lead to male infertility. However, whether they are involved in Cd-induced subfertility is unknown. Here we found that intraperitoneal exposure to Cd in mice led to male subfertility indicated by reductions in testicular sperm production and motility, and by abnormal morphology. Testicular and sperm RNAs were used to investigate lncRNA expression profiles by strand-specific RNA sequencing at the transcriptome level to help determine any RNA-related mechanisms in Cd-induced subfertility. The Cd-treated testes and spermatozoa exhibited aberrant expression profiles for lncRNAs and mRNAs. Of the lncRNAs, there were 139 with upregulated expression and 174 with downregulated expression in testes; in contrast, 685 were upregulated and 375 were downregulated in spermatozoa. For mRNA expression, 214 were upregulated and 226 were downregulated in testes; 272 were upregulated and 111 were downregulated in spermatozoa. Gene ontology and pathway analyses showed that the functions of differentially expressed lncRNA targets and mRNAs were closely linked with many processes involved in spermatogenesis. Additionally, many newly identified lncRNAs showed inducible expression, suggesting that they might be good candidate markers for Cd-induced male reproductive toxicity. This study provides a preliminary database for further exploring lncRNA-related mechnisms in male infertility induced by Cd. - Highlights: • LncRNA profiles were changed by Cd exposure in mouse testes and spermatozoa. • Differentially expressed lncRNA targets and mRNAs were linked with spermatogenesis. • Providing a database for exploring lncRNA-related mechnisms in male infertility. • LncRNA might be candidate markers for Cd-induced male reproductive toxicity.
[en] Protection of spermatogenesis from radiation-induced damage has been investigated in the adult Wistar rat. Silastic tubing containing either cholesterol or testosterone was implanted subcutaneously 7 weeks before 4 equal daily fractions of either 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 Gy of 230 kVp X-rays locally to the testes. Implants were removed on the day following the last fraction and 8 weeks after irradiation 88.6%, 83.8%, 63.6% and 28.9% tubule cross-sections respectively were found regenerating in rats pretreated with testosterone. In contrast, 68.45%, 58.6%, 38.2% and 17.3% tubule cross-sections regenerating were obtained in rats pretreated with cholesterol. Changes in testis weight however were found to show the reverse trend (i.e. a greater weight loss was observed following androgen pretreatment). These results show that protection of spermatogenesis from fractionated irradiation may be achieved in rat testis by androgen pretreatment. 25 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 table
[en] UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X)-containing proteins belong to an evolutionary conserved protein family and determine the specificity of p97/VCP/Cdc48p function by binding as its adaptors. Caenorhabditis elegans was found to possess six UBX-containing proteins, named UBXN-1 to -6. However, no general or specific function of them has been revealed. During the course of understanding not only their function but also specified function of p97, we investigated spatial and temporal expression patterns of six ubxn genes in this study. Transcript analyses showed that the expression pattern of each ubxn gene was different throughout worm's development and may show potential developmental dynamics in their function, especially ubxn-5 was expressed specifically in the spermatogenic germline, suggesting a crucial role in spermatogenesis. In addition, as ubxn-4 expression was induced by ER stress, it would function as an ERAD factor in C. elegans. In vivo expression analysis by using GFP translational fusion constructs revealed that six ubxn genes show distinct expression patterns. These results altogether demonstrate that the expression of all six ubxn genes of C. elegans is differently regulated
[en] Purpose: To establish a predictive model for the estimation of the gonadal dose during adjuvant para-aortic (PA) or dog leg (DL: PA plus ipsilateral iliac) field radiotherapy in patients with testicular seminoma. Methods and Materials: The surface gonadal dose was measured in patients with seminoma Stage I receiving PA or DL radiotherapy. Sperm cell analysis was performed before and 1 year after irradiation. PA and DL radiotherapy were simulated in the Alderson phantom while we measured the dose to the surface and middle of an artificial testicle, varying its position within realistic anatomical constraints. The symphysis-to-testicle distance (STD), field length, and thickness of the patient were experimental variables. The developed mathematical model was validated in subsequent patients. Results: The mean gonadal dose in patients was 0.09 and 0.32 Gy after PA and DL irradiation, respectively (p < 0.001). DL radiotherapy, but not PA irradiation led to significant reduction of the sperm count 1 year after irradiation. The gonadal dose-reducing effect of PA irradiation was confirmed in the Alderson phantom. A significant correlation was found between the STD and the gonadal dose during DL irradiation. A mathematical model was established for calculation of the gonadal dose and confirmed by measurements in patients. Conclusions: During radiotherapy of seminoma, the gonadal dose decreases with increasing STD. It is possible to predict the individual gonadal dose based on delivered midplane dose and STD
[en] Autoradiographic studies with 3H-fucose have shown that this precursor of polysaccharide compounds is incorporated into manubria and antheridial mucilage of Chara vulgaris both in the light and in the darkness. The dynamic of this process is lower in total darkness. The decrease in overall labelling of antheridium (manubria an mucilage) reflects secondary metabolic changes both in proliferative phase and in spermiogenesis. The pulse (2 and 5 min) incubations with the isotope confirm the intensive mucilage translocation which at later developmental stages is more dynamic than at earlier ones. It can explain previously observed decrease in manubria radioactivity at later stages after long (40 min) incubation, because PAS-positive polysaccharide synthesis is simultaneous with their fast translocation to the antheridial space. The present and previous autoradiographic and cytophotometric data taken altogether confirm the assumption about a nutritive role of mucilage filling Chara antheridium during the process of spermatogenesis. (author). 19 refs, 7 figs
[en] Male mature rats were treated per os with TV-68 (a sexual function stimulating drug) and intraperitoneally with 3H-thymidine during 7 and 12 days. By means of statistical count of labelled cells in seminiferous tubules a considerable increase of DNA replicating cells in experimental animals was established. The higher percentage of labelled cells reveales a stimulating effect of the TV-68 concerning the spermatogonial proliferation, some acceleration of the meiosis and positive influence of spermatogenesis as a whole. (author)