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[en] As demonstrated recently, in the realistic situation when the low-frequency noises are uncorrelated among different physical superconducting qubits, transfer of individual logical qubits in arrays of physical qubits can be used to suppress the low-frequency decoherence of quantum information encoded in the logical qubits 1. The purpose of this work is to show that, if the quantum information is encoded in the Bell-type logical states, the transfer of these states through an array of physical qubits implements simultaneously the motion-induced and spin-echo suppression of decoherence leading to a qualitatively stronger tool against the low-frequency noise than is provided by the two approaches separately 2. We also discuss the coexistence of the motion-induced suppression of decoherence and more complicated dynamic decoupling-schemes, like Carr-Purcell pulse sequence.
[en] Background: T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence has been reported to provide improved contrast between lesions and normal anatomical structures compared to T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging at 1.5T regarding imaging of the lumbar spine. Purpose: To compare T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging in normal anatomic structures and degenerative and metastatic lesions of the lumbar spine at 3.0T. Material and Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients (19 females, 13 males; mean age 44 years, range 30-67 years) with lesions of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and relative contrast (ReCon) between degenerative and metastatic lesions and normal anatomic structures were conducted, comparing these sequences. Results: On quantitative evaluation, SNRs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nerve root, and fat around the root of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those of T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). CNRs of normal spinal cord/CSF and disc herniation/ CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). ReCon of normal spinal cord/CSF, disc herniation/CSF, and vertebral lesions/CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). On qualitative evaluation, it was found that CSF nulling and contrast at the spinal cord (cauda equina)/CSF interface for T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly superior compared to those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001), and the disc/spinal cord (cauda equina) interface was better for T1-weighted FLAIR images (P<0.05). Conclusion: The T1-weighted FLAIR sequence may be considered as the preferred lumbar spine imaging sequence compared to T1-weighted FSE, as it has demonstrated superior CSF nulling, better conspicuousness of normal anatomic structures and degenerative and metastatic lesions, and improved image contrast
[en] Quantum coherence control of two-pulse photon echoes has been demonstrated for a rephasing halt, resulting in storage-time extension using atom phase-controlled optical deshelving (optical locking) in a backward propagation scheme for the additional benefit of echo intensity enhancement. Compared with conventional forward two-pulse photon echoes, the backward two-pulse photon echo efficiency is enhanced by 15-fold even in a dilute sample, and the storage time is lengthened by spin dephasing time accelerated by spin inhomogeneous broadening. The mechanism of delayed photon echoes via optical locking is due to the temporal hold of the rephasing process by coherent population transfer to a robust spin state.
[en] Discrepancies exist in the literature regarding contrast between gray and white matter on spin-echo (SE) T1-weighted MR imaging at 3 T. The present study quantitatively assessed differences in gray matter-white matter contrast on both single- and multi-slice SE T1-weighted imaging between 3 and 1.5 T. SE T1-weighted sequences with the same parameters at both 3 and 1.5 T were used. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between gray and white matter (CNRGM-WM) was evaluated for both frontal lobes. To assess the effects of interslice gap, multi-slice images were obtained with both 0 and 25% interslice gap. Single-slice CNRGM-WM was higher at 3 T (17.66 ± 2.68) than at 1.5 T (13.09 ± 2.35; P < 0.001). No significant difference in CNRGM-WM of multi-slice images with 0% gap was noted between 3 and 1.5 T (3T, 8.61 ± 2.55; 1.5T, 7.43 ± 1.20; P > 0.05). Multi-slice CNRGM-WM with 25% gap was higher at 3T (12.47 ± 3.31) than at 1.5 T (9.73 ± 1.37; P < 0.001). CNRGM-WM reduction rate of multi-slice images with 0% gap compared with single-slice images was higher at 3T (0.47 ± 0.13) than at 1.5 T (0.38 ± 0.09; P = 0.02). CNRGM-WM on single-slice SE T1-weighted imaging and CNRGM-WM on multi-slice images with 25% interslice gap were better at 3 T than at 1.5 T. The influence of multi-slice imaging on CNRGM-WM was significantly larger at 3T than at 1.5 T. (orig.)
[en] Highlights: • T2-fast field echo (T2FFE) is a T2 weighted gradient echo sequence but also has T1 shortening effect. • T2FFE in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced (Gd-EOB) MRI is useful for differentiating benign and malignant liver lesions. • Benign lesions showed a positive contrast whereas malignant lesions showed a negative contrast on T2FFE images in the HBP of Gd-EOB-MRI. - Abstract: Purpose: To optimize the flip angle (FA) of the T2 enhanced spin-echo imaging using the time reversed gradient echo (T2FFE) and evaluate its utility for differentiating hypointensity nodules in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced (Gd-EOB) MRI. Materials and methods: First, FA optimization of the T2FFE in the HBP was investigated by comparing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) among different FAs using phantoms. The liver-to-muscle contrast ratios (CRLiver-Muscle) and image quality among three FAs (20°, 50° and 80°) were compared using images of 10 patients. Next, the utility of the T2FFE with an optimized FA for differentiating hypointensity nodules in the HBP was assessed by comparing the lesion-to-liver contrast ratio (CRLesion-Liver) among cysts, hemangiomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, and metastatic tumors in 32 patients. Results: SNR increased as FA increased, but leveled off at FAs of 50° and greater. The FA of 50° showed significantly better image quality scores than that of 80° (p < 0.05). After employing an FA of 50°, the CRLesion-Liver value indicated that the T2FFE depicted benign lesions as hyperintense and most malignant lesions as hypointense in relation with the liver parenchyma (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The T2FFE in the HBP of Gd-EOB-MRI is useful for differentiating benign and malignant liver lesions.
[en] We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of 3D isovoxel MR imaging using 3T MRI in the wrist joint, as compared with 3T MR arthrography. A total of 33 patients underwent both MR arthrography and 3D isovoxel imaging of the wrist joints using 3T MR, including 11 patients with arthroscopic confirmation. 3D isovoxel MR imaging was performed using an intermediateweighted fast spin echo coronal scan with a 0.4-mm slice thickness and the axial images were reconstructed with a 1-mm slice thickness. One radiologist evaluated for the presence of scapholunate or lunotriquetral ligament tear and she determined the grade of the triangular fibrocartilage complex tear and chondromalacia with its location. We compared the two examinations using kappa values. The rates of detecting wrist injury were similar for both exams with substantial to almost perfect inter-examination agreement (kappa value = 0.864 for scapholunate ligament tear, 0.835 for lunotriquetral ligament tear, 0.799 for TFCC tear and 0.940 for chondromalacia). For the eleven cases that underwent arthroscopy, their results of 3D isovoxel MRI were also similar to that of MR arthrography. 3D isovoxel MR imaging is useful for the evaluation of the wrist joint