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[en] Scattering of mobile-phone base-stations within populated areas is a source of some misscomfortableness to many people. As there is no one agreed on safety level for the MPE for RF/MW all over the world, measurements of radiation emitted from base-stations is a necessity. In this work we screened out some mobile-phone base-stations inside and outside Khartoum city in Sudan. Measurements were done indoor and outdoor to maximum horizontal distance of about 300 m from the base of the base-stations. Results obtained were then compared to the maximum and minimum MPE values admitted in different countries in the world. The maximum MPE value (i.e- 0.57 mW/cm2) consider only the thermal effects of the RF/MW, while other values tend to reduce the exposure limits to as minimum as possible for safety considerations (considering non-thermal effects). Some of the values obtained were consistent with some reported biological effects. We recommended the removal of some base-stations from sensitive areas like schools, kindergardens, hostels, hospitals, etc. (author)
[en] In the present study, air samples have been collected from different areas in Khartoum and River Nile States. Sample collection was performed over different periods of time (1-2 hours). The average elemental concentrations for Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Br and Pb have been determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF).The accuracy of measurements has been investigated by using Standard Reference Material (SRM) IAEA- Soil-7. In Khartoum State, the average elemental concentrations of Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Br and Pb in the expected contaminated sites were 83.27, 0.001, 36.12, 14.051, 0.1, 7.057 and 11.122 μg/m3, respectively. In River Nile State proposed contaminated sites the average elemental concentrations of Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Br and Pb were 19.387, < 0.001, 34.5, 6.10, < 0.1, 4.174 and 7.415 μg/m3, respectively. The results showed that higher values were found for the crustal elements (Ca, Fe) while lower values were found for the elements emitted from other sources. Enrichment factors were calculated for the elements which showed that the elements Ca, Cr and Ni were not enriched, while Pb and Co were enriched possibly through anthropogenic emission. A ratio of Br/Pb in aerosol similar to the ratio in the petrol burned is indicative of a source of both lead and bromine.
[en] Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the frequency and pattern of skin diseases among uniformed personnel at a United Nations peace-keeping mission Level III hospital at Darfur, Sudan. Design: A descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at dermatology outpatient department of United Nations peace keeping mission (UNAMID) level III Hospital from Jan 2010-2011. Patients and Methods: All soldiers/ policemen of either gender reporting to dermatology department of the hospital for the first time during the study period were registered after informed consent. A specially designed proforma was filled for each patient separately. In addition to date of reporting, demographic profile and disease information were noted. The data was managed and analyzed using SPSS-14. Results: There were a total of 438 uniformed personnel of the age ranging from 20-52 years (mean of 34.30+6.43). Eczema in various forms was the most common disease (21.9%), followed by fungal infections (10%) and melasma (08.9%). One hundred and seventy five (40.0%) patients had the disease 02 months to >30 years before their deployment, whereas 263 (60%) developed the disease 03 days to 01 year after deployment. Conclusion: Eczema, fungal infections and melasma were the commonest skin problems among uniformed personnel. Forty percent of these had dermatological problems before deployment. (author)
[en] Truck-borne scintillometry in part of the Nuba Mountains of Sudan has located a radioactive zone with a strike length of 1.5 km, correlating with a tectonic breccia. The tectonic breccia is marked by a gravity anomaly of 1-2 mGal negative but has no magnetic expression. Maxium levels of Al2O3 - 35.4%, P2O5 - 26.1%, U - 2220 ppm, F - 7900 ppm, Ba - 14900 ppm, V -3080 ppm and sporadic highs in Cr, Cu and Zn occur in aluminous phosphate (crandallite). These deposits are interpreted as replacement zones in tectonic breccia formed through leaching of aluminous constituents from basement rocks by percolating phosphorus-rich groundwater. The presence of significant 'U' substitution in these rocks targets this aluminous phosphate (crandallite) deposit as a potential source of U as a by-product of phospate recovery. (author). 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs
[en] Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture, and as a by product of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores. To ensure the protection of human health and the environment from the hazard of these wastes, a planned integrated radioactive waste management practice should be applied. The purpose of this study is to develop regulations for radioactive waste management for low and intermediate radioactive level waste (LILW), and other purpose of regulations is to establish requirements with which all organizations must comply in Sudan from LILW in particular disused/spent sources, not including radioactive waste for milling and mining practices. The national regulations regarding the radioactive waste management, should prescribe the allocation of responsibilities and roles of the Country, the regulatory body, user/owner, waste management organization, including regulations on transport packaging of waste and applied a quality assurance programme, to ensure that radioactive waste management is done safely and securely. (author)
[en] First, I would like to thank the IAEA and OECD for sponsoring this conference and the government of China for hosting the conference. It gives me great pleasure to address this conference. This is a very important conference dealing with nuclear power in the 21st century. Sudan as a developing nation experiences an increase in the energy demand of its people. This is due to an increase industrialization and urbanization. Sudan with the assistance of the IAEA has initiated a planning study for long term energy supply and demand. This study showed that by the year 2020 an energy gap between energy supply and demand will occur. According to this study Sudan need to consider the nuclear option as part of an energy mix. Accordingly, Sudan with the help of the IAEA has started a technical cooperation program aiming at understanding the necessary infrastructure needed for a nuclear power program. To implement this program two committees were formed. A technical committee to address the technical requirement for the project and a high administrative committee to give the necessary political support. Utilizing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes requires strong commitment towards issues of safety, security and safeguards of nuclear and radioactive material. As part of the infrastructure requirement, in Sudan we started the amendments of the legal and regulatory framework. A new atomic energy act is being drafted. The most important features of this act are that: It provide for the establishment of a separate independent regulatory authority which will deal with all regulatory aspects of radioactive sources and nuclear material. The act also covers areas like emergency preparedness, nuclear security, liability and others. The legal requirement of nuclear program is the adherences to certain international legal instrument. A national committee from the ministries of justice, foreign affairs and science and technology was formed to advice on the country position regarding the required legal framework. A nuclear power program requires a highly trained manpower. We started on some programs that would lead to the creation of the critical manpower required for this undertaking. Under Sudan academy of Sciences we implemented M.Sc. programs on: Radiation protection; Nuclear instrumentation and electronics; Nuclear Science and technology. A bachelor degree in nuclear engineering will start soon at Sudan university of Science and Technology. To support these educational programs and to train more in areas like reactor operation, reactor engineering and reactor physics, Sudan has discussed with the IAEA the possibility of acquiring a zero power reactor which will help as a training tool for the needed scientists and engineers. However, considering the nineteen issues under the three mile stones for the preparation of the necessary infrastructure required for a knowledgeable decision on the introduction of nuclear power, there are areas need to be addressed by the international community. An assured supply of fuel which is not subjected to discriminative measures apart from purely technical ones is still controversial. The spend fuel processing and the waste management is also a gray area. Further the availability of small and medium reactors that suit better the capacity on grids in developing country is far from available. By this allow me to conclude my speech and I wish the conference all the success. Thank you for your attention.
[en] This work was carried out mainly to analysis of some Sudanese phosphate ores, for their uranium abundance and total phosphorus content measured as P2O5%. For this purpose, 30 samples of two types of phosphate ore from Eastern Nuba Mountains, in Sudan namely, Kurun and Uro areas were examined. In addition, the relationship between uranium and major, and trace elements were obtained, also, the natural radioactivity of the phosphate samples was measured, in order to characterize and differentiate between the two types of phosphate ores. The uranium abundance in Uro phosphate with 20.3% P2O5 is five time higher than in Kurun phosphate with 26.7% P2O5. The average of uranium content was found to be 56.6 and 310 mg/kg for Kurun and Uro phosphate ore, respectively. The main elements in Kurun and Uro phosphate ore are silicon, aluminum, and phosphorus, while the most abundant trace elements in these two ores are titanium, strontium and barium. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that uranium in Kurun phosphate shows strong positive correlation with P2O5, and its distribution is essentially controlled by the variations of P2O5 concentration, whereas uranium in Uro phosphate shows strong positive correlation with strontium, and its distribution is controlled by the variations of Sr concentration. Uranium behaves in different ways in Kurun phosphate and in Uro phosphate. Uro phosphate shows higher concentrations of all the estimated radionuclides than Kurun phosphate. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that Uro phosphate is consider as secondary uranium source, and is more suitable for uranium recovery, because it has high uranium abundance and low P2O5%, than Kurun phosphate. (authors)
[es]Este trabajo se llevo a cabo principalmente para analizar algunos minerales de fosfato de Sudan con el objetivo de evaluar la abundancia de uranio y el contenido de fosforo total en los mismos. Para este proposito, se examinaron 30 muestras de dos tipos de mineral de fosfato de las montanas de Nuba oriental en Sudan llamadas Kurun y areas de Uro. Ademas, se han obtenido las relaciones entre el uranio y los elementos principales y trazas. Se midio tambien la radiactividad natural de las muestras de fosfato, a fin de caracterizar y diferenciar entre los dos tipos de minerales de fosfato. La abundancia de uranio en fosfatos de Uro con 20,3% P2O5 resulto ser cinco veces mas alto que en los fosfatos de Kurun con 26,7% P2O5. El promedio de contenido de uranio fue de 56,6 y 310 mg/kg para los minerales de fosfato de Kurun y Uros, respectivamente. Los elementos principales en los fosfatos de Kurun y Uros fueron silicio, aluminio y fosforo, mientras que los elementos traza mas abundantes en estos dos minerales fueron titanio, estroncio y bario. El coeficiente de correlacion de Pearson revelo que el uranio en los fosfatos de Kurun muestra una correlacion fuertemente positiva con P2O5, y su distribucion esta controlada esencialmente por las variaciones de la concentracion de P2O5, mientras que el uranio en los fosfatos de Uro muestra una fuerte correlacion positiva con estroncio, y su distribución esta controlada por las variaciones de la concentracion de Sr. El uranio se comporta de diferentes maneras en los fosfatos de Kurun y de Uro. Los fosfatos de Uro muestran las mayores concentraciones de todos los radionucleidos estimados que los fosfatos de Kurun. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, se puede concluir que los fosfatos de Uro se pueden considerar como fuente secundaria de uranio y que es mas adecuado para la recuperación de uranio, debido a su mayor abundancia de uranio y a su menor porcentaje de P2O5 que los fosfatos de Kurun. (autores)