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[en] This research has investigated physical variables affecting indoor thermal comfort and subjective responses of thermal comfort of students in a university in Korea in which the weather is oceanic temperate climate, and has been performed to contribute to the research fields of Sustainable Thermal Standard and Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC). This research is based on the ISO 7730-2005 standard and the ATC theories and 4 main variables of PMV such as dry bulb temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), black bulb temperature (Tg), and air velocity (Va) are measured once a week during two regular semesters. A clothing insulation, a thermal sensation vote (TSV), an acceptability of thermal environment, and a preference for cooling and heating are investigated at the same time using a questionnaire. This study was carried out for 26 weeks during the spring season, from March to June 2009, and the autumn season, from September to December 2009. The main achievements of this study are as follows. Monthly Mean Outdoor Temperature (MMOT) and Operative Temperature (OT) in the classroom during research periods are 7.4∼23.3 .deg. C and 17.5∼29.0 .deg. C, respectively. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment shows over 80% when the range of OT in the classroom is 17∼25 .deg. C, and the range can be applicable to operative index of heating and cooling of classroom. The mean TSV of respondents is almost 'neutral (0)' when the PMV in the classroom moves to 'neutral (0)' and 'slightly cool (-1)', and the TSV is almost '+1.5' when the PMV moves to 'slightly warm (+1)'. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment is slightly different from ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. So it is necessary to more investigate standard range of acceptability of thermal environment in oceanic temperate climate region using much more databases
[en] For the North-East Development Region of Romania, balneary-climatic tourism can potentially become a development engine. To this type of tourism, other forms or types of tourism are added, which are to some extent conditioned by the regional particularities of the climate and bioclimate. To better understand the climatic conditioning on the tourism in this region, we have selected five representative balneary-climatic resorts, located in three different bioclimatic zones: tonic-stimulant (Vatra Dornei), sedative-indifferent (Slănic Moldova, Târgu Ocna, and Bălţăteşti), and turn-applicant (Nicolina). The location under different bioclimatic conditions allowed us a good comparative analysis of the differences and similarities between the resorts. For this, we used an hourly database for the period January 1, 1961 to December 31, 2015, from which we built the daily database for all the elements and parameters required to calculate the physiologically equivalent temperature index, based on the RayMan model, its representations, and the climate-tourism schemes. The physiologically equivalent temperature and the climate-tourism schemes allowed us to identify the best periods of the year for conducting balneary and climate-therapeutic activities—both adjacent and standalone, or a variety of relaxing or recreational leisure activities conducted in the open. Finally, the trends of the annual series of PET data for the interval 1961–2015 and the subintervals 1961–1980 and 1981–2015 were identified and analyzed. We were consequently able to draw a set of conclusions outlining a series of changes that are likely to intervene in the relationship between climate and tourism in this region in the immediate future.
[en] Highlights: • Reviews how the concept of energy service has been used to analyse energy demand. • Argues that common uses are too static and neglect the core meaning of service as useful work. • A concept of meta-services is proposed as a nexus of expectation, provision and experience. • Highlights: role of multiple stakeholders in shaping energy-service demand. • Discusses policy implications for servicizing and demand reduction. - Abstract: The idea that energy is not consumed for its own sake but for the services that it provides has become axiomatic. However, the implications are not worked through into energy policy nor into most analyses of energy demand. Instead, energy service demand is usually isolated from its dynamic and varied socio-cultural basis, rendering it inappropriately static and neglecting the core quality of usefulness that definitions of ‘energy service’ share. To address these limitations, this paper revisits and extends a sociological conceptualisation of services, referred to here as meta-services. These are composite and cross-cutting formations of convention, expectation and experience and the means of achieving them. Meta-services are more-than-energy services and are shaped not only through energy consumption, provision and governance but also by a range of other non-energy providers and organisations. This calls for demand reduction policies to engage wider coalitions of service ‘stakeholders’. In addition, because energy-services co-constitute meta-services, aspirations to deliver the same levels of service but more efficiently risk entrenching, rather than reducing, levels of service demand. Implications for service-based business models (servicizing) and policies are discussed.
[en] The thermal comfort control of a room must consider not only the thermal comfort level but also energy saving. This paper proposes an enthalpy estimation that is conducive for thermal comfort control and energy saving. The least enthalpy estimator (LEE) combines the concept of human thermal comfort with the theory of enthalpy to predict the load for a suitable setting pair in order to maintain more precisely the thermal comfort level and save energy in the air conditioning system
[en] Results of the first studies specifically dedicated to the impact of climate change on the thermal behaviour of buildings in Portugal are discussed within this paper. A top-down econometric/statistical analysis was attempted in order to correlate fluctuations of temperature and energy consumption in the residential and services sectors, but the results were not conclusive. A bottom-up numerical thermal simulation of representative buildings for various regions of Portugal was more successful. Unlike most studies for northern countries, it is predicted that the energy demand for space conditioning in Portugal would greatly increase by the end of the twenty-first century, assuming fixed characteristics of the building sectors. The heating season is shorter and the heating thermal load reduced (with HadCM3 model scenarios, less 250-410 kWh for residences, less 5-7 kWh/m2 for offices), but these economies are offset by an extended cooling season and large increases of the cooling thermal loads (additional 500-880 kWh for residences, 19-24 kWh/m2 for offices). Higher resolution studies using HadRM data resulted in yet more serious climate change impacts. (Author)
[en] Heat escape-motivated travel, called “sunbird” tourism, has become increasingly important with global warming and associated urban heat island effects. This study proposes a new method based on defining “comfortable” calendar days, to identify regions thermally suitable for “sunbird” tourism (namely northern Northeast China, eastern Inner Mongolia Plateau, northern Xinjiang Province, eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and Yungui Plateau) and their comfortable periods in China. From 1961–1990 to 1987–2016, comfortable periods have extended by 5 to over 20 days in eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and parts of Yungui Plateau, but shortened by 5 to over 20 days in northern Northeast China and eastern Inner Mongolia Plateau, corresponding to 9 and 21 locations respectively becoming suitable and no longer suitable for “sunbird” tourism. Moreover, comfortable periods are now much earlier in the eastern Inner Mongolia Plateau and have dramatically altered in terms of their temporal distribution over the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Finally, we discuss the implications for tourism.
[en] Buildings and plant are designed utilizing near-extreme weather data. The present data used are briefly discussed, including manual near-extreme percentiles for manual design and hourly data for simulation on a PC (test reference years and design summer years, and near-extreme periods). However, with climate change occurring, designs based on current data will produce uncomfortable summer thermal conditions within and around buildings in the future. This expected change is especially relevant now, as buildings have to last typically from 50 to 100 years. Climate change data for the future are needed to assess the performance of buildings and plant in the future. The Hadley Centre climate change models could provide such data. In this paper analysis of extreme data from one model, the HadCM3 model (south-east England grid box) with an appropriate climate change scenario, are considered in relation to their use for design assessment. Dry bulb temperature and solar irradiance extreme values are considered in this paper. The expected trend in both minimum and maximum temperature is for both to increase with time, but the maxima are found to rise faster than the minima. There are two factors influencing the solar radiation estimates, the basic clarity of the atmosphere and the seasonal amount of cloud. The latter is predicted to increase slightly in winter and decrease slightly in summer. The variations in the predicted short-wave radiation values reflect the expected combined impacts of these two factors. The implications of these results are briefly discussed. (Author)
[en] There are many references to the WHO guidance on thermal comfort in housing, but not to the original source material. Based on archive material, this paper gives the evidential basis for the WHO guidance. It then reports on evidence that some groups may be more susceptible to high or low indoor temperatures than others. It examines different methods for measuring thermal comfort, such as air temperature measurement, assessing residents' perception, and predicting satisfaction. Resident's perception was used effectively in the WHO LARES project, showing that self-reported poor health was significantly associated with poor thermal comfort. Tools to inform strategies directed at dealing with cold homes and fuel poverty are considered, including Energy Performance Certificates, Fuel Poverty Indicators, and the English Housing Health and Safety Rating System. Conclusions from a WHO Workshop on Housing, Energy and Thermal Comfort are also summarised. The WHO view of thermal comfort, which is driven by protecting health from both high and low indoor temperatures, should be recognised in energy efficiency, fuel poverty and climate change strategies. While this is a major challenge, it could provide both health gains for individuals, and economic benefits for society. - Highlights: ► WHO guidance on thermal comfort is directed to protecting health in the home environment. ► In particular, the WHO guidance aims to protect the health of the most susceptible and fragile. ► Housing energy efficiency strategies protect health, and attack inequities. ► Housing energy efficiency strategies also have economic benefits for society.