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[en] This paper deals with a numerical and experimental investigation of a daily solar storage system conceived and built in Laboratoire de Maitrise des Technologies de l Energie (LMTE, Borj Cedria). This system consists mainly of the storage unit connected to a solar collector unit. The storage unit consists of a wooden case with dimension of 5 m3 (5 m x 1m x 1m) filed with fin sand. Inside the wooden case was buried a network of a polypropylene capillary heat exchanger with an aperture area equal to 5 m2. The heat collection unit consisted of 5 m2 of south-facing solar collector mounted at a 37 degree tilt angle. In order to evaluate the system efficiency during the charging period (during the day) and discharging period (during the night) an energy and exergy analyses were applied. Outdoor experiments were also carried out under varied environmental conditions for several consecutive days. Results showed that during the charging period, the average daily rates of thermal energy and exergy stored in the heat storage unit were 400 and 2.6 W, respectively. It was found that the net energy and exergy efficiencies in the charging period were 32 pour cent and 22 pour cent, respectively. During the discharging period, the average daily rates of the thermal energy and exergy recovered from the heat storage unit were 2 kW and 2.5 kW, respectively. The recovered heat from the heat storage unit was used for the air-heating of a tested room (4 m x 3 m x 3 m). The results showed that 30 pour cent of the total heating requirement of the tested room was obtained from the heat storage system during the whole night in cold seasons
[en] A preliminary design concept of metal hydride beds for the storage and delivery system (SDS) and the long term storage system (LTS) in the ITER was reported by authors. The SDS bed consists of a primary vessel containing ZrCoQx (Q=90T-10D, 50T-50D) and a secondary vessel for protecting and insulating the primary vessel. In the primary vessel, about 3.5kg of ZrCo absorb D-T at room temperature and desorb D-T at 250-350 .deg. C. Twenty six nickel fins with a 1mm thickness and 106mm in diameter (2mm less than the inner diameter of the primary vessel) are attached at a 10 mm pitch to increase the heat transfer from the heater to the ZrCoQx. In the secondary vessel, four thermal barriers within the inner wall surround the primary vessel for insulation and an outer wall of the secondary vessel surrounds the inner wall of the secondary vessel with a vacuum layer. To meet ITER plasma experiment requirements, the SDS beds have to supply D-T gas at a delivery of ∼ 20Pam3/s (time average) delivery rate is required in order to supply 50Pam3/s to the fuel injection system (FIS). The internal design structure of the LTS bed, which stores T2 and/or 90T10D, is similar to that of SDS bed. The present study describes design detail of the heater required for the SDS bed and the LTS bed and their heating performance analyzed by using the heating 7.3 program
[en] Over the last 40 years different thermal energy storage materials have been investigated with the aim of enhancing energy efficiency in buildings, improving systems performance, and increasing the share of renewable energies. However, the main requirements for their efficient implementation are not fully met by most of them. This paper develops a comparati e review of thermophysical properties of materials reported in the literature. The results show that the highest volumetric storage capacities for the best available sensible, latent and thermochemical storage materials are 250 MJ/m3 , 514 MJ/m3 and 2000 MJ/m3 , respectively, corresponding to water, barium hydroxide octahydrate, and magnesium chloride hexahydrate. A group of salt hydrates and inorganic eutectics have been identified as the most promising for the development of competitive thermal storage materials for cooling, heating and comfort applications in the short-term. In the long-term, thermochemical storage materials seem promising. However, additional research efforts are required.
[es]En los últimos 40 años se han investigado diferentes materiales de almacenamiento térmico con el objetivo de mejorar la eficiencia energética en los edificios, mejorar el rendimiento de sistemas y aumentar el uso de renovables. Sin embargo, la mayoría no cumple los principales requisitos para su eficiente implementación. Este artículo desarrolla una revisión de las propiedades termofísicas de los materiales existentes en la literatura. Los resultados muestran que las mayores capacidades de almacenamiento volumétrico para los mejores materiales de almacenamiento sensible, latente y termoquímico son 250 MJ/m3 , 514 MJ/m3 y 2000 MJ/m3, respectivamente, correspondientes a agua, hidróxido de bario octahidratado y cloruro de magnesio hexahidratado. Un conjunto de sales hidratadas y eutécticos han sido identificados como los más prometedores para el desarrollo de materiales competitivos para aplicaciones de enfriamiento, calefacción y confort a corto plazo. A largo plazo, el almacenamiento termoquímico parece prometedor. Sin embargo, investigación adicional es requerida.
[en] An exergoeconomic analysis is reported of glycol cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems. Exergoeconomics combines thermodynamic analysis (using both the first and second laws of thermodynamics) with principles of economics, mostly cost accounting. Exergy analysis provides more meaningful and useful information than energy analysis about the efficiency and performance of glycol CTES. The main reason is that traditional analyses are based on mass and energy balances and only external losses can be detected, while exergy analysis measures the quality of energy and includes irreversibility's that occur during any process. According to simulation results, the exergy efficiency of the glycol CTES is roughly 75% less than the energy efficiency due to irreversibility's, and the system efficiency is less than the tank efficiency. Irreversibility's for the overall system are higher than for the tank. Also, the reference ambient temperature has an effect on exergy destruction and efficiency. A 5oC change in ambient temperature causes a 25% change in exergy efficiency. This result implies that cold energy is more efficient at higher ambient temperatures. Heat losses from the tank depend on the ambient temperature; a 5oC increase in ambient temperature causes a heat loss increase of 6%. (author)
[en] The PULSAR pulsed tokamak power plant design utilizes the outboard shield for thermal energy storage to maintain full 1000 MW(e) output during the dwell period of 200 s. Thermal energy resulting from direct nuclear heating is accumulated in the shield during the 7200 s fusion power production phase. The maximum shield temperature may be much higher than that for the blanket because radiation damage is significantly reduced. During the dwell period, thermal power discharged from the shield and coolant temperature are simultaneously regulated by controlling the coolant mass flow rate at the shield inlet. This is facilitated by throttled coolant bypass. Design concepts using helium and lithium coolant have been developed. Two-dimensional, time-dependent thermal hydraulic calculations were performed to confirm performance capabilities required of the design concepts. The results indicate that the system design and performance can accommodate uncertainties in material limits or the length of the dwell period
[en] A thermal model has been developed to investigate the potential of using the stored thermal energy of the ground for greenhouse heating and cooling with the help of a ground heat storage system (GHSS) integrated with the greenhouse located in the premises of CRTEn, Tunis, Tunisia. Experiments were conducted extensively throughout the years 2006-2007, and the developed model was validated against several consecutive arbitrary days experiments. The predicted and measured values of the greenhouse air temperatures and humidities that were verified, in terms of root mean square deviation and correlation coefficient, exhibited fair agreement. The results of this study showed that the GHS system kept the inside air temperature 1-3 degree higher than that of outside air at nighttime. The main reason for this low efficiency is due to the weak heat transfer area of the water-air heat exchanger. The simulation results indicate that the GHSS does not yield any significant effect for cooling greenhouses during sunny daytime. The GHSS fulfils its full potential for a heat transfer area of 150 m2. With this area, there occurs 4-6 degree rise of temperature in greenhouse as compared to the temperatures without GHSS and respectively 5-7.5 degree rise in greenhouse as compared to outside air
[en] An integrated collector storage (ICS) solar water heater was constructed in 2004 and studied its optical and thermal performance. It was revealed that it has some thermal shortcomings of thermal performances. The ICS system consists of one cylindrical horizontal tank properly mounted in a stationary symmetrical Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) reflector trough. The main objective was to delimit the causes of these deficiencies and trying to diagnose them. A rigorous experimentation of the solar water heater has been done over its daily energetic output as well as the evolution of the nocturnal thermal losses. In fact, three successive days, including nights, of operation have permitted to obtain diagrams describing the variations of mean temperature in the tank and the thermal loss coefficient during night of our installation. The experimental results, compared with those obtained by simulation, showed a perfecting of thermal performances of system which approach from those of other models introduced on the international market