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[en] V2AlC coatings prepared by magnetron sputtering on a Zr substrates were irradiated with He ions to simulate the behavior of accident tolerant fuels (ATFs) in a reactor. TEM analysis and scratch test showed that the He bubbles preferentially nucleated along the substrate-coating interface and resulted in a loss of mechanical resistance of the V2AlC coating (i.e., reduced the adhesion of coating). This study provides a first insight into the irradiation-induced mechanical behavior of V2AlC coating on the Zr substrate and demonstrates the importance of improving the irradiation resistance of the cladding-coating system by optimizing the interfacial structure between the cladding and the coating materials for the development of ATFs.
[en] Recently designed optimized stellarator experiments have suffered from very tight construction tolerances, but some level of deviation of the coil system is unavoidable during fabrication of the coils and assembly of the coil system. In this paper, we present a new approach that incorporates reduced sensitivity to construction tolerances of the coil system into the optimization sequence. The approach was tested within the framework of the existing coil optimization scheme for Wendelstein 7-X. The results are compared with those of a coil set obtained by the original optimization. The result is a more optimal coil system with less stringent tolerances, such that small deviations cause reduced deterioration of the properties important for fusion performance. (paper)
[en] Highlights: • Tolerance based self-punishment can promote cooperation in the SPGG. • Tolerance based peer punishment can promote cooperation in the SPGG. • Effects of tolerance parameters on the cooperation are investigated. • Effects of PSO-based learning parameters on the cooperation are investigated. - Abstract: How cooperative behavior emerges and evolves in human society remains a puzzle. It has been observed that the sense of guilt rooted from free-riding and the sense of justice for punishing the free-riders are prevalent in the real world. Inspired by this observation, two punishment mechanisms have been introduced in the spatial public goods game which are called self-punishment and peer punishment respectively in this paper. In each situation, we have introduced a corresponding parameter to describe the level of individual tolerance or social tolerance. For each individual, whether to punish others or whether it will be punished by others depends on the corresponding tolerance parameter. We focus on the effects of the two kinds of tolerance parameters on the cooperation of the population. The particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based learning rule is used to describe the strategy updating process of individuals. We consider both of the memory and the imitation in our model. Via simulation experiments, we find that both of the two punishment mechanisms could facilitate the promotion of cooperation to a large extent. For the self-punishment and for most parameters in the peer punishment, the smaller the tolerance parameter, the more conducive it is to promote cooperation. These results can help us to better understand the prevailing phenomenon of cooperation in the real world.
[en] Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory
[en] Active triangulation measurement systems with a rigid geometric configuration are inappropriate for scanning large objects with low measuring tolerances. The reason is that the ratio between the depth recovery error and the lateral extension is a constant that depends on the geometric setup. As a consequence, measuring large areas with low depth recovery error requires the use of multiresolution techniques. We propose a multiresolution technique based on a camera-projector system previously calibrated. The method consists of changing the camera or projector's parameters in order to increase the system depth sensitivity. A subpixel retroprojection error in the self-calibration process and a decrease of approximately one order of magnitude in the depth recovery error can be achieved using the proposed method
[en] Error tolerance and attack vulnerability are two common and important properties of complex networks, which are usually used to evaluate the robustness of a network. Recently, much work has been devoted to determining the network design with optimal robustness. However, little attention has been paid to the problem of how to improve the robustness of existing networks. In this paper, we present a new parameter α, called the enforcing parameter, to guide the process of enhancing the robustness of scale-free networks by gradually adding new links. Intuitively, α < 0 means the nodes with lower degrees are selected preferentially while the nodes with higher degrees will be more probably selected when α > 0. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that when α < 0, the attack survivability of the network can be enforced apparently. Then we propose new strategies to enhance the network robustness. Through extensive experiments and comparisons, we conclude that establishing new links between nodes with low degrees can drastically enforce the attack survivability of scale-free networks while having little impact on the error tolerance
[en] An in vitro selection program was conducted in order to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum,L.) tolerance to drought. Potato mutant plants were obtained through a previously conducted mutation breeding program on three potato cultivars (Draga, Spunta, and Diamant) aimed to improve potato tolerance to salinity and resistance to late blight disease. In order to apply selection pressure, growth media (MS based) were prepared with the addition of 1%, 2%, 3% concentrations of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). As a result, three mutants were selected that were tolerant to water stress (i.e. drought tolerant), two of them were derived from the cultivar Draga and one came from Spunta. Physiological growth parameters (plant length, leaf number, branch number, roots number, leaf area, stomata number, and chlorophyll concentration content) were determined on the growing plantlets. The selected mutants were distinguished based on some characteristics which being associated with in their tolerance to drought. Such as an increases in leaf number, root number, and a decrease in stomata number. However a reduction in chlorophyll content was observed as compared with the control. This is considered a negative parameter which may result in a decrease in number and size of tubers. Thus it is important to continue selection for higher chlorophyll content. Also, these mutant lines will need further selection in the field for plants with larger tubers before they can be considered as certified lines.
[en] Seven newly developed rice cultivars i.e., KS-133, DR-83, DR-64, BR-601, Gomal, JP-5 and Gomal-6, were evaluated for salinity tolerance in a glass house along with three varieties of known salinity tolerance i.e., KS-282 (tolerant), IR-6 (medium tolerant) and Basmati-385 (susceptible). Based on the survival percentage at 50 mol/m3 sodium chloride salinity imposed at seedling stage, rice cultivars KS-133, Gomal, and DR-83 showed high survival comparable to that of salinity tolerant cultivars like KS-282, and were thus placed in tolerance range. Survival percentage of JP-5, Gomal-6 and DR-64 remained in medium tolerance range (35 to 38%) as that of IR-6. The rice cultivar BR-601 showed only 13% survival and was found to be as sensitive towards salinity as Basmati-385. The results of rice survival in saline medium showed good uniformity and the check varieties showed results corresponding to those found elsewhere. Sodium (Na/sup +/) and potassium (K/sup +/) concentrations in the third leaf showed variations among different rice cultivars under salinity. There was an inverse correlation between varietal leaf Na/sup +/ vs survival percentage (r = -0.808) and Na/sup +/ vs leaf chlorophyll (r -0.857). The correlation between K/sup +/ and final survival percentage was direct (r = 0.744) and also leaf chlorophyll vs survival (r = 0.952). The shoot fresh and dry weights were greater in the rice genotypes having higher final survival percentage under saline conditions. Therefore, in addition to final survival percentage, the higher shoot fresh and dry weight under salinity could be also used as criterion for evaluation of salinity tolerance of rice. (author)
[en] We present a study of the joint influence of temperature and fabrication defects on the operation of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) devices. Canonical ensemble, a Hubbard-type Hamiltonian and the inter-cellular Hartree approximation were used, and a statistical model has been introduced to simulate defects in the QCA devices. Parameters such as success rate and breakdown displacement factor (BDF) were defined and calculated numerically. Results show the thermal dependence of BDF values of the QCA devices. The BDF values decrease with temperature. The joint influence of randomly missing dots and temperature was also studied