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[en] The novel protein modification, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), plays an important role in various aspects of cell regulation. Although most of nuclear transcription regulatory factors are modified by O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAc effects on transcription remain largely undefined yet. In this study, we show that O-GlcNAc inhibits a physical interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors, and negatively regulates transcription of placenta and embryonic expression oncofetal protein gene (Pem). These findings suggest that O-GlcNAc inhibits Sp1-mediated gene transcription possibly by interrupting Sp1 interaction with its cooperative factor.
[en] We have recently shown that the minor capsid protein L2 of human papillomavirus type 33 (HPV33) recruits the transcriptional repressor Daxx into nuclear domains (ND) 10 and causes the loss of the transcriptional activator Sp100 from these subnuclear structures . In order to dissect L2 domains involved in nuclear translocation, ND10 homing, loss of Sp100, and recruitment of Daxx, a detailed deletion mutagenesis of L2 was performed. Using immunofluorescence and green fluorescent protein fusions, we have identified two nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the central and C-terminal part of L2, respectively, homologous to previously identified NLS in HPV6B L2 . We mapped the ND10 localization domain to within a 30 amino acid peptide in the C-terminal half of L2. L2-induced attraction of Daxx into ND10, coimmunoprecipitation of L2 and Daxx, as well as induction of the loss of Sp100 from ND10 require an intact ND10 localization domain. This domain contains conserved PXXP motives characteristic of some protein/protein interacting domains. Our data also suggest that the Daxx/L2 interaction may be the driving force for L2 accumulation in ND10
[en] We explored the binding of octamer (Oct) transcription factors to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) by gel shift assays and showed none of the previously identified four potential Oct binding sites bound Oct-1 or Oct-2. Overexpression of Oct-1 or Oct-2 had no effect on HIV-1 LTR activity in transiently transfected primary human CD4 T cells. Next, primary human CD4 T cells were co-transfected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expression vector and an Oct-1 or Oct-2 expression plasmid. The transfected cells were stimulated for 2 days and then infected with the NL4-3 strain of HIV-1. After 3 days of infection, there were no differences in HIV-1 p24 supernatant levels. Apoptosis of infected or bystander cells overexpressing Oct-1 or Oct-2 compared to control was also unaffected. Our studies demonstrate that Oct-1 and Oct-2 fail to bind to the HIV-1 LTR and have no effect on HIV-1 transcription in primary human CD4 T cells
[en] We investigated whether the high mobility group B 1 (HMGB1), an abundant nuclear protein in all mammalian cells, affects HIV-1 transcription. Intracellular expression of human HMGB1 repressed HIV-1 gene expression in epithelial cells. This inhibitory effect of HMGB1 was caused by repression of long terminal repeat (LTR)-mediated transcription. Other viral promoters/enhancers, including simian virus 40 or cytomegalovirus, were not inhibited by HMGB1. In addition, HMGB1 inhibition of HIV-1 subtype C expression was dependent on the number of NFκB sites in the LTR region. The inhibitory effect of HMGB1 on viral gene expression observed in HeLa cells was confirmed by an upregulation of viral replication in the presence of antisense HMGB1 in monocytic cells. In contrast to what was found in HeLa cells and monocytic cells, endogenous HMGB1 expression did not affect HIV-1 replication in unstimulated Jurkat cells. Thus, intracellular HMGB1 affects HIV-1 LTR-directed transcription in a promoter- and cell-specific manner
[en] Since the discovery of TT virus (TTV) in 1997, its mechanism of transcriptional control has remained unsolved. Molecular analysis points at the 1.2-kb noncoding region (NCR) as being responsible for transcriptional control. The 5' terminus of TTV mRNA was located at nt 114 using the primer extension method (nt 114 will be referred to as position +1). This employed the PE1 primer, designed to start approximately 100 nt downstream of the predicted initiation site. Overall promoter and enhancer activity of the NCR was analyzed using dual luciferase assays in K562, Jurkat, U937, A549, HepG2, Huh7, and HeLaS3 cells. Of those tested, K562 showed the highest relative luciferase activity of 31.1, and activity in HepG2 (14.6) was significantly higher than that in Huh7 (2.8). Fragments of <250 nt length, spanning the NCR, were inserted into a luciferase vector possessing an SV40 promoter. Fragments F5(-542/-311) and F6(-310/-197) showed promoter-enhancing activities of >6.0 by insertion not only in the sense orientation, but also both in the antisense orientation and downstream of the luciferase gene. The 5' deletion of NCR from -1201 to -370 resulted in no significant decrease in the level of luciferase activity. A gradual decrease in the activity of the 5'-deletion mutants from position -370 through -155 was consistent with the loss of enhancer binding sites detected during fragment analysis. A further deletion at position -76 completely abolished luciferase expression, indicating that region -154/-76 contains the critical regulatory element for functioning of the TTV promoter
[en] E1AF is a member of the ETS family of transcription factors. In mammary tumors, overexpression of E1AF is associated with tumorigenesis, but E1AF protein has hardly been detected and its degradation mechanism is not yet clear. Here we show that E1AF protein is stabilized by treatment with the 26S protease inhibitor MG132. We found that E1AF was modified by ubiquitin through the C-terminal region and ubiquitinated E1AF aggregated in nuclear dots, and that the inhibition of proteasome-activated transcription from E1AF target promoters. These results suggest that E1AF is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which has some effect on E1AF function
[en] Sendai virus C protein associates with the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and inhibits the interferon (IFN) response. We report a molecular basis for the anti-IFN-γ mechanism of Sendai virus. The C-terminal half-fragment of the C protein (D1) retains both the STAT1-binding and the anti-IFN-γ abilities comparable to those of the full-size C. IFN-γ stimulation generates phosphory lated-STAT1 even in the presence of the C or the D1. The phosphorylated-STAT1 generated in the D1-expressing cells forms an aberrant complex, which does not bind to a γ-activated sequence (GAS) probe. Purified D1, indeed, inhibits in vitro the binding of the phosphory lated-STAT1 dimer to the GAS probe. The D1, however, binds to the STAT1 N-terminal domain, but not the DNA binding domain. These results suggest the possibility that the C protein prevents the γ-activated factor from binding to GAS elements through its interaction with the STAT1 N-terminal domain
[en] LEF-1 and E2F are both transcription factors involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The present study shows for the first time that LEF-1 associates with E2F1 and further β-catenin independently activates the E2F-responsive reporter gene by attenuating the interaction between E2F1 and Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), which indicates that LEF-1, except for its function in Wnt signaling, may play a distinct role via activating the transcription of E2F1
[en] Highlights: ► Baculovirus p35 is regulated by both viral and host factors. ► Baculovirus p35 is negatively regulated by SfP53-like factor. ► Baculovirus p35 is positively regulated by SfAP-1-like factor. -- Abstract: Baculovirus p35 belongs to the early class of genes of AcMNPV and requires viral factors like Immediate Early protein-1 for its transcription. To investigate the role of host factors in regulating p35 gene expression, the putative transcription factor binding sites were examined in silico and the role of these factors in influencing the transcription of p35 gene was assessed. We focused our studies on AP-1 and P53-like factors, which are activated under oxidative stress conditions. The AP-1 motif is located at −1401 while P53 motif is at −1912 relative to p35 translation start site. The predicted AP-1 and P53 elements formed specific complexes with Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear extracts. Both AP-1 and P53 motif binding proteins were down regulated as a function of AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera cells. To address the question whether during an oxidative outburst, the p35 transcription is enhanced; we investigated the role of these oxidative stress induced host transcription factors in influencing p35 gene transcription. Reporter assays revealed that AP-1 element enhances the transcription of p35 by a factor of two. Interestingly, P53 element appears to repress the transcription of p35 gene.
[en] The human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax protein trans-activates viral transcription through three imperfect tandem repeats of a 21-bp sequence called Tax-responsive element (TxRE). Tax regulates transcription via direct interaction with some members of the activating transcription factor/CRE-binding protein (ATF/CREB) family including CREM, CREB, and CREB-2. By interacting with their ZIP domain, Tax stimulates the binding of these cellular factors to the CRE-like sequence present in the TxREs. Recent observations have shown that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) forms stable complexes on the CRE site in the presence of CREB-2. Given that C/EBPβ has also been found to interact with Tax, we analyzed the effects of C/EBPβ on viral Tax-dependent transcription. We show here that C/EBPβ represses viral transcription and that Tax is no more able to form a stable complex with CREB-2 on the TxRE site in the presence of C/EBPβ. We also analyzed the physical interactions between Tax and C/EBPβ and found that the central region of C/EBPβ, excluding its ZIP domain, is required for direct interaction with Tax. It is the first time that Tax is described to interact with a basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) factor without recognizing its ZIP domain. Although unexpected, this result explains why C/EBPβ would be unable to form a stable complex with Tax on the TxRE site and could then down-regulate viral transcription. Lastly, we found that C/EBPβ was able to inhibit Tax expression in vivo from an infectious HTLV-I molecular clone. In conclusion, we propose that during cell activation events, which stimulate the Tax synthesis, C/EBPβ may down-regulate the level of HTLV-I expression to escape the cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte response