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[en] A rapid and simple radiochemical assay for dihydroorotase (DHOase; EC 22.214.171.124) has been developed. DHOase activity is assessed by measuring the amount of L-5,6-dihydro[14C]orotate formed from N[14C]cerbamyl-L-aspartate in the forward reaction and N[14C]carbamly-L-aspartate formed from L-5,6-dihydro[14C]orotate in the reverse reaction following the separation of the two compounds by high-voltage paper electrophoresis in an acetic acid/formic acid solution, pH 2.30. The procedure can, in principle, also be applied to the assay of aspartate carbamyl transferase (EC 126.96.36.199) and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase
[en] Highlights: • Crystal structure of W. bancrofti GST with its cofactor GSH at 2.3 Å resolution was determined. • Structural comparison against human GST reveals distinct differences in substrate binding sites. • GST xenobiotic binding site is more substrate accessible and reveals non-catalytic binding sites. • Enzyme kinetic assays reveal that antifilarial drug Diethyl carbamazine binds in an uncompetitive manner. • Structural features provide insights to support future design of parasite specific inhibitors. The notoriety of parasitic nematode survival is directly related to chronic pathogenicity, which is evident in human lymphatic filariasis. It is a disease of poverty which causes severe disability affecting more than 120 million people worldwide. These nematodes down-regulate host immune system through a myriad of strategies that includes secretion of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs). Earlier studies have shown Wuchereria bancrofti GST to be a potential therapeutic target. Parasite GSTs catalyse the conjugation of glutathione to xenobiotic and other endogenous electrophiles and are essential for their long-term survival in lymph tissues. Hence, the crystal structure of WbGST along with its cofactor GSH at 2.3 Å resolution was determined. Structural comparisons against host GST reveal distinct differences in the substrate binding sites. The parasite xenobiotic binding site is more substrate/solvent accessible. The structure also suggests the presence of putative non-catalytic binding sites that may permit sequestration of endogenous and exogenous ligands. The structure of WbGST also provides a case for the role of the π-cation interaction in stabilizing catalytic Tyr compared to stabilization interactions described for other GSTs. Hence, the obtained information regarding crucial differences in the active sites will support future design of parasite specific inhibitors. Further, the study also evaluates the inhibition of WbGST and its variants by antifilarial diethylcarbamazine through kinetic assays.
[en] Background: The current proposed model of colorectal tumorigenesis is based primarily on CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), microsatellite instability (MSI), KRAS, BRAF, and methylation status of 0-6-Methylguanine DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT) and classifies tumors into five subgroups. The aim of this study is to validate this molecular classification and test its prognostic relevance. Methods: Three hundred two patients were included in this study. Molecular analysis was performed for five CIMP-related promoters (CRABP1, MLH1, p16INK4a, CACNA1G, NEUROG1), MGMT, MSI, KRAS, and BRAF. Methylation in at least 4 promoters or in one to three promoters was considered CIMP-high and CIMP-low (CIMP-H/L), respectively. Results: CIMP-H, CIMP-L, and CIMP-negative were found in 7.1, 43, and 49.9% cases, respectively. One hundred twenty-three tumors (41%) could not be classified into any one of the proposed molecular subgroups, including 107 CIMP-L, 14 CIMP-H, and two CIMP-negative cases. The 10 year survival rate for CIMP-high patients [22.6% (95%CI: 7–43)] was significantly lower than for CIMP-L or CIMP-negative (p = 0.0295). Only the combined analysis of BRAF and CIMP (negative versus L/H) led to distinct prognostic subgroups. Conclusion: Although CIMP status has an effect on outcome, our results underline the need for standardized definitions of low- and high-level CIMP, which clearly hinders an effective prognostic and molecular classification of colorectal cancer.
[en] A radiochemical assay for the measurement of histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) activity in human erythrocytes (RBCs) has been developed. This assay was developed as a first step toward testing the hypothesis that the biochemical properties and regulation of HNMT in an easily obtainable human cell, the RBC, might reflect those of the enzyme in less accessible cells and tissues. (Auth.)
[en] Protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) catalyze the methylation of lysine residues on many different cellular proteins. Despite extensive biochemical and structural studies, focusing on PKMT active site-peptide interactions, little is known regarding how PKMTs recognize globular substrates. To examine whether these enzymes recognize protein substrates through interactions that take place outside of the active site, we have measured SETD6 and SETD7 activity with both protein and peptide RelA substrate. We have utilized the MTase-Glo™ methyltransferase assay to measure the activity of SETD6 and SETD7 with the different RelA substrates and calculated the Michaelis-Menten (MM) parameters. We found an up to ∼12-fold increase in KM of the PKMTs activity with RelA peptide relative to the respective full-length protein, emphasizing the significantly higher PKMT-protein interaction affinity. Examination of SETD6 and SETD7 activity toward the same RelA substrates highlight the similarity in substrate recognition for both PKMTs. Our results show that the interaction affinity of SETD6 and SETD7 with RelA is enhanced through interactions that occur outside of the active site leading to higher catalytic efficiency and specificity. These interactions can significantly vary depending on the PKMT and the specific methylation site on RelA. Overall, our results underline that PKMTs can recognize their substrates through docking interactions that occur out of the active site-peptide region for enhancing their activity and specificity in the cellular environment.
[en] Circular RNA (circRNA), a family of RNA generated by RNA circularization, is ubiquitously expressed in tissues and possesses increasingly important biological functions. Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction is an initiating event in the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications. How high glucose may affect circRNAs is unknown. To address this issue, human endothelial cells were exposed to high glucose treatment and the changes of circRNAs were measured by RNA sequencing. A total 3686 circRNAs, including 1040 previously unrecorded circRNAs, were detected; and 95 different expression (DE) circRNAs were observed. The host genes of these DE circRNAs were further studied by function enrichment analyses. These analyses revealed genes of phosphoproteins, transferases, and zine finger proteins. Since circRNAs can function as a microRNA (miRNA) sponge, circRNAs-miRNAs interaction networks were explored by bioinformatics. These analyses identified a number of miRNAs, which might interact with DE circRNAs and play roles in the actions of high glucose on endothelial cells. These results demonstrate that high glucose exposure profoundly changes circRNA expression in endothelial cells. Altered circRNA expression may contribute to the effects of high glucose on endothelial function in diabetes.
[en] Lactococcus lactis, a gram-positive bacterium, encounters various environmental stresses, especially acid stress, during fermentation. Small RNAs (sRNAs) that serve as regulators at post-transcriptional level play important roles in acid stress response. Here, a novel sRNA S042 was identified by RNA-Seq, RT-PCR and Northern blot. The transcription level of s042 was upregulated 2.29-fold under acid stress by Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Acid tolerance assay showed that overexpressing s042 increased the survival rate of L. lactis F44 and deleting s042 significantly inhibited the viability under acidic conditions. Moreover, the targets were predicted by online software and four genes were chosen as candidates. Among them, argR (arginine regulator) and accD (acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit beta) were validated to be the direct targets activated by S042 through reporter fusion assay. The regulatory mechanism between S042 and its targets was further investigated through Bioinformatics and qRT-PCR. This study served to highlight the role of the novel sRNA S042 in acid resistance of L. lactis and provided new insights into the response mechanism of acid stress.
[en] A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the determination of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was developed using human pancreatic enzyme as antigen. The assay allows the determination of GGT in concentrations as low as 80 ng/ml, and it is reproducible and specific. A good parallel relation was demonstrated between the standard curve and dilution curves for serum, urine, bile, and partially purified kidney GGT. In normal individuals, the mean serum concentration of GGT determined by RIA was found to be 3.43 μg/ml (SD+-1.20). Enzyme activity calculated from the GGT concentration measured by the radioimmunoassay using a regression equation was approximately twice as great as that determined by conventional enzyme assay. (author)
[en] Histone lysine methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D/MLL2) is a known cancer-related protein; however, its function in gastric cancer (GC) remains uncharacterized. The present study sought to investigate the expression pattern and the role of KMT2D in GC.