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[en] As the international reference in terms of fuel cycle services, the COGEMA Group has developed a wide range of industrialized products answering to its clients needs. But, as deregulation and competition are now expanding, utilities has to be perfectly aware of the cost level of their strategic choices, and to keep these costs down. This point is especially valid in the back-end of the fuel cycle. Several leading nuclear countries around the world have chosen the reprocessing-recycling option because it ensures a economically mastered vision. In that respect, transportation reliability is consequently a basic requirement. It ensures a balanced and continuous flows of materials. Transportation system must be reliable in terms of schedule, safety or industrial aspects (i.e. dedicated packaging for road, rail, sea or air transports, maintenance aspects...). Any serious flaw in one of these three points could lead to delays, thus lessening the economic advantage for utilities. But, one must not loose sight that transportation of nuclear materials is tied to extra-technical issues, such as environmental or regulatory factors, which are fundamental for a consistent understanding of this business. The COGEMA Group, through its subsidiary Transnucleaire, possesses a dedicated transport system, widely praised for its constant commitment in terms of safety, quality and operating. This papers presents the overall back-end transportation framework and details the transport organisations as well as the main achievements of Transnucleaire when it comes to sea, road or rail back-end transports. (authors)
[en] This report summarizes the radioactive material (RAM) transportation accident/incident experience in the United States from 1971 to March 1985. RAM transportation activities that involve accidents or incidents comprise approximately 0.7% of all hazardous material transportation incidents. RAM transport accident/incident experience as a subset of all RAM transport that occurs in a typical year is also presented
[en] Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate
[en] These guidelines are intended to assist persons and oganisations in meeting the requirements of the Code. Examples of procedures to be followed are provided. A list of competent authorities in Australia is given
[en] Nuclear transport is ruled by very strict regulations, which has allowed a high standard of security and safety. Framatome is the first nuclear fuel supplier in the world. In the last 25 years more than 46000 fuel assemblies have been delivered, so Framatome is used to nuclear transport by road, sea and railways. In case of road transport Framatome compels its subcontractors to be Iso9000 certified. This article describes the different aspects of the preparation and achievement of a nuclear transport: the choice of the mean of transport and of the packaging, the legal procedures to comply with, the insurance contract and the time planning. The right progress of the various stages of a nuclear transport is warranted by the strict application of a quality assurance system. FS65 cask has been designed to transport fresh MOX fuels, it can contain 1 PWR (900 or 1300 Mw) assembly or 2 BWR assemblies or fuel rods. This cask is made up of 4 elements: - a cylindrical body to assure confinement and shielding, - a barrel to maintain the nuclear fuel inside the body, - an aluminium frame to protect the body from shocks and - an anti-vibrating device set up between the body and the frame. A licence of B-type casks has already been given by French authorities. Today 4 FS65-1300 casks have been largely used and have transported 30000 MOX fuel rods. (A.C.)
[en] Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)
[en] The paper gives general information on the subject of transport of radioactive material. The responsibilities and tasks of the competent authorities for transport of radioactive materials in Poland, the Ministry of Transportation and Maritime Economy, and the President of National Atomatic Agency, are specified. Regulations applied for different modes of transport and other regulatory requirements related to transport of radioactive materials are described. (Author)
[en] It is important that the transportation of radioactive material should be carried out safely. The same safety level should be maintained in each country and for each mode of transport, to ensure a smooth transfer of radioactive material travelling internationally or by land, sea and air. When transport regulations are different between countries involved or modes of transport, there is the possibility of confusion at the transfer point. It is very important for the international community to consider how to introduce common IAEA transport regulations into national regulations in each country. Under such conditions, it is open to question whether a revision interval of two years of the IAEA transport regulation is suitable. (author)
[en] This outlook anticipates the developments in the new cabinet term 2011-2015 with regard to mobility. The following questions are addressed: (1) What are the main determining environmental aspects in the medium term and which changes are anticipated; (2) How does mobility and accessibility in the Netherlands develop in the next cabinet term (2011-2015) in case of unaltered policy; (3) How do the developments in this outline relate to previous long-term expectations?.
[nl]In deze verkenning wordt vooruit gekeken naar de ontwikkelingen in de nieuwe kabinetsperiode 2011-2015 m.b.t. mobiliteit. De volgende vragen staan centraal: (1) Wat zijn op middellange termijn de belangrijkste bepalende omgevingsfactoren en welke veranderingen worden daarin verwacht?; (2) Hoe ontwikkelt de mobiliteit en bereikbaarheid in Nederland zich in de komende kabinetsperiode (2011-2015) bij ongewijzigd beleid?; (3) Hoe verhouden de ontwikkelingen in deze Verkenning zich tot de eerdere lange termijnverwachtingen?.
[en] Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in transportation logistics of radioactive wastes as part of the overall waste transportation program. A Spent Fuel Logistics Model (SFLM), was developed to predict overall material balances representing the flow of spent fuel assemblies from reactors to away-from-reactor storage facilities and/or to federal repositories. The transportation requirements to make these shipments are also itemized. The next logical step in the overall transportation project was the development of a set of computer codes which would predict likely transportation routes for waste shipments. Two separate routing models are now operational at ORNL. Routes for truck transport can be estimated with the HIGHWAY program, and rail and barge routes can be predicted with the INTERLINE model. This paper discusses examples of the route estimates and applications of the routing models