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[en] Due to a procedural error in construction of Figs. 8 and 9, listed minimum speeds to beat the tsunami wave in areas of Seaside seaward of Neawanna Creek are too high. The two figures should be replaced by the new figures below.
[en] The supplementary files for this publication can be found on the publication’s individual web page at www.iaea.org/publications. The files provided in the supporting material are related to the input of the analytical benchmark – 1 and 2, respectively, and to the data collected in the laboratory test that were used for comparison with the numerical results. The details on the file content available in the supporting material are provided in tables embedded in the text and listed below: 1. Input data for analytical benchmark – 1: Table I–1 2. Input data for analytical benchmark – 2: Table I–2 3. Data from laboratory experiments: Table II–1
[en] The Valais is the most seismically active region of Switzerland. Strong damaging events occurred in 1755, 1855, and 1946. Based on historical documents, we discuss two known damaging events in the sixteenth century: the 1524 Ardon and the 1584 Aigle earthquakes. For the 1524, a document describes damage in Ardon, Plan-Conthey, and Savièse, and a stone tablet at the new bell tower of the Ardon church confirms the reconstruction of the bell tower after the earthquake. Additionally, a significant construction activity in the Upper Valais churches during the second quarter of the sixteenth century is discussed that however cannot be clearly related to this event. The assessed moment magnitude Mw of the 1524 event is 5.8, with an error of about 0.5 units corresponding to one standard deviation. The epicenter is at 46.27 N, 7.27 E with a high uncertainty of about 50 km corresponding to one standard deviation. The assessed moment magnitude Mw of the 1584 main shock is 5.9, with an error of about 0.25 units corresponding to one standard deviation. The epicenter is at 46.33 N and 6.97 E with an uncertainty of about 25 km corresponding to one standard deviation. Exceptional movements in the Lake Geneva wreaked havoc along the shore of the Rhone delta. The large dimension of the induced damage can be explained by an expanded subaquatic slide with resultant tsunami and seiche in Lake Geneva. The strongest of the aftershocks occurred on March 14 with magnitude 5.4 and triggered a destructive landslide covering the villages Corbeyrier and Yvorne, VD.
[en] The tsunami which occurred on December 28, 1908, in the Straits of Messina is examined. A wide set of data coming from a number of sources was collected and reviewed in order to get a picture as clear as possible of the generation and evolution of the event. The tsunami magnitude is estimated according to the Murty-Loomis scale, based upon the evaluation of the initial wave disturbance energy
[en] Tidal triggering of earthquakes is hypothesized to provide quantitative information regarding the fault's stress state, poroelastic properties, and may be significant for our understanding of seismic hazard. To date, studies of regional or global earthquake catalogs have had only modest successes in identifying tidal triggering. We posit that the smallest events that may provide additional evidence of triggering go unidentified and thus we developed a technique to improve the identification of very small magnitude events. We identify events applying a method known as inter-station seismic coherence where we prioritize detection and discrimination over characterization. Here we show tidal triggering of earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault. We find the complex interaction of semi-diurnal and fortnightly tidal periods exposes both stress threshold and critical state behavior. Lastly, our findings reveal earthquake nucleation processes and pore pressure conditions – properties of faults that are difficult to measure, yet extremely important for characterizing earthquake physics and seismic hazards.
[en] In each earthquake and tsunami event, efforts to evacuate to a safe place are always the right choice. This is because after the earthquake, the damage caused is usually quite massive. There is little time to react in an evacuation effort to move to a place safe from the reach of the tsunami wave. This study aimed to identify areas affected by the tsunami and the number of people exposed. The data will be used to select the temporary evacuation points that can be used to protect oneself from tsunami waves. The evacuation point was done by the scoring method. The determining of evacuation points took into account the parameters of building functions, distance from shoreline, building area, altitude, number of building floors, distance from the road, and its capacity. The results of this study indicates that, the determining of evacuation sites greatly impacts the area and service areas for Temporary Evacuation Shelter (TES) (paper)
[en] Recent observations of internal waves and currents generated by tidal mixing inside the strait of Messina, with classical measurements made in 1922-1923 by Francesco Vercelli are compared. A peculiar front South of Capo Vaticano in southern Tyrrhenian Sea is described. Its relation with the turbolence due to the braking of internal nonlinear waves generated by the inside the Strait of Messina is discussed
[en] This correction stands to correct Figure 7c listing a low minimum slip of 12 m for Case 2 instead of the correct value of 8 m, as stated in the body of the text and depicted on the chart of cumulative slip. The corrected chart explanation and caption are shown below. This error did not affect any of the findings of the paper or the chart itself. This is a correction to the original article.
[en] Earthquakes are a natural disaster that often occurs in Indonesia. This is due to geographic location and very active tectonic conditions. Indonesia experienced both small and large-scale earthquakes which sometimes accompanied by tsunami waves. One of the earthquakes occurred on the island of Java on July 5-7 in succession. From this phenomenon, researchers conducted research that aims to determine the attention or awareness of physics students on the earthquake phenomenon on 5-7 July 2020, to find out students ‘knowledge about the Earthquake Disaster and to find out physics students’ understanding of the Causes of Earthquakes on 5-7 July 2020. This research used the questionnaire method and interview. The respondents in this research were 62 physics students at the State University of Surabaya. The results showed that the dominant response was 61.3% or as many as 38 physics students knew about the earthquake but paid less attention. Meanwhile, physics students ‘understanding of the Earthquake Disaster was included in the intelligible category, and physics students’ understanding of the Causes of the Earthquake on July 7, 2020, obtained the most dominant results, 29% answered that it was caused by the subduction activity of the Indo-Austrian plate. So, it can be concluded that the understanding and awareness of undergraduate physics students in the earthquake phenomenon in Indonesia is still lacking. Therefore, physics students still need to be given in-depth understanding and literacy about the earthquakes. (paper)