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[en] This case series emphasizes the role of USG in the diagnosis of isolated soft tissue cysticercosis. We assessed its value for identifying features such as the location of the cyst, the presence or absence of abscess, and the presence or absence of a scolex within the cyst. Three USG patterns were seen and are described
[en] Echocardiographic evaluation of right ventricular (RV) function is a challenge due to the complex anatomy of the RV. Several transthoracic echocardiographic methods have been suggested for the quantification of RV function. However, many of the parameters are time consuming and need dedicated hardware and software. We suspected that the majority of the established markers are not used on a wide basis. In a multinational online survey, we evaluated the use of current clinical standards for the quantification of RV function in clinical practice. Through the network of an Ultrasound Online Teaching Platform, echocardiographers were invited to participate in an open online survey. The participants were asked about the parameters (eyeballing, TAPSE, S′, fractional area change, RIMP, 3D-EF, dp/dt, longitudinal strain) they used in clinical practice. A total of 1150 participants from 109 countries completed the survey. Only eyeballing (72%), TAPSE (69%), and S′ (31%) were commonly used in clinical routine. These methods were applied significantly less common in low-income economies when compared to high-income economies. Twenty-three percent of all participants stated to rely on eyeballing only, when evaluating RV function in clinical routine. New technologies, such as global longitudinal strain (3%) and 3D echocardiography (1%) were rarely applied independent of region and economic strength. Eyeballing and TAPSE are the most widely used methods in echocardiography for the assessment of RV function. Although advanced parameters such as longitudinal strain and 3D echocardiography were shown to be highly accurate, they are rarely used in clinical routine.
[en] The prognosis of colerectal carcinoma is closely linked to the anatomic extent of tumor presented at the time of diagnosis. An accurate preoperative staging of colorectal carcinoma will permit precise individual treatment to be planned before surgery. Transrectal ultrasound has beens shown to demonstrate the depth of tumor spread, invasion into perirectal fat, tumor spread to lymph nodes, and invasion of adjacent organs. In order to compare the ability of intrarectal ultrasound in recognizing the extent of disease, 14 patients with histologically proven carcinoma of the rectum were examined before operation and the results were compared with those from the resected specimens. Sonography correctly staged 12 of 14 tumors with one false negative. The other subject could not be studied because the probe could not be passed through the involved area. In addition, intrarectal ultrasound was performed in 6 patients operated on for rectal cancer and 3 local recurrences were recognized. A review of the normal ultrasonographic pattern of the rectal wall is done paying attention to the correlation between sonographic and histologic layers. Based on the low cost, reliability and simple use, intrarectal ultrasound is proposed as a method that permits accurate staging of rectal cancer in our population. (author)
[pt]O prognostico do carcinoma do reto esta ligado a extensao da lesao na epoca do diagnostico. Um adequado estadiamento pre-operatorio do cancer de reto permitira que o tratamento individual correto seja planejado. A ultra-sonografia transretal tem se mostrado eficaz em determinar o grau de infiltracao do tumor na parede do reto, a invasao da gordura e dos linfonodos perirretais e a invasao de orgaos vizinhos. Para comparar a capacidade de ultra-sonografia transretal em demonstrar a extensao da neoplasia, 14 pacientes com carcinoma de reto provado foram examinados antes da cirurgia, e, os resultados, comparados com o exame das pecas cirurgicas. O exame endossonografico estadiou corretamente 12 dos 14 tumores, ocorrendo um falso negativo. No outro paciente, o exame nao pode ser concluido porque o transdutor nao conseguiu transpor a area do tumor. Seis outros pacientes em seguimento pos-cirurgico por cancer de reto foram submetidos a endossonografia, demonstrando-se recidiva local em tres. Uma revisao do padrao sonografico da parede do reto normal e feita, com atencao especial para a correlacao entre as camadas histologicas e as sonograficas. Baseado no baixo custo, na acuracidade e simplicidade, a ultra-sonografia transretal e proposta como um metodo que permite adequado estadiamento do cancer de reto em nossa populacao. (autor)
[en] The role of radiology is of utmost importance not only in diagnosing s-OHSS but also in ruling out other cystic ovarian diseases and to determine the underlying etiology and course of the disease. We presented a radiological algorithm for diagnosing the various causes of s-OHSS. A 26-year-old female, gravida one was referred to radiology department with history of lower abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting since 2 days which was gradual in onset and progression. The patient had no significant medical and surgical history. This article illustrates and emphasizes that diagnosis of s-OHSS and its etiology can be completely evaluated radiologically. Biochemical markers will confirm the radiological diagnosis
[en] Choriocarcinoma is a human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)-secreting tumor that comprises vascular channels. It has a tendency for widespread metastasis, common sites for which include the lung, vagina, brain, liver, bone, intestine, and kidney. We describe a 30-year-old female who presented with hepatitis-like features and bilateral diminution of vision, and subsequently developed hemothorax and hemoperitoneum—all rare and seemingly unrelated manifestations which were finally attributable to metastases from gestational choriocarcinoma. To further complicate the clinical scenario, the serum HCG of the patient was mildly raised (due to a phenomenon called hook effect). Subsequently, the patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation and succumbed to her illness. In this report, we discuss the imaging findings of choriocarcinoma, its potential sites of metastases, and the hook effect.
[en] To assess the differential points of benign and malignant lesions, authors evaluated the sonographic findings of 45 cases of thyroid nodules, comprising 31 cases of benign nodules and 14 cases of malignant nodules. Sonographic findings were evaluated in terms of the echo patterns, margin, size and multiplicity of the thyroid nodules. There is no significant differences between the benign and malignant nodules in echo patterns and multilicity. A large(more than 4 cm in diameter) and clear marinated nodule is suggestive of benignancy. Differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid nodules on the basis of sonographic findings seems to be difficult
[en] Edwards syndrome is the second most common trisomy syndrome occurring in 0.3/1,000 births. The prenatal diagnosis of this trisomy may be suspected in the routine ultrasound exam of the pregnancy by means of the recognition of a constellation of findings: fetal structural anomalies, intrauterine growth retardation (CIR) and umbilical cord or amniotic fluid volume abnormalities. The diagnosis is then confirmed by chromosome analysis of either amniotic fluid or fetal blood or tissue. We present six cases of Edwards syndrome suspected by fetal ultrasonography exam, all of them confirmed by karyotype, describing the major sonographic findings. (Author) 15 refs
[en] Introduction: The acromio-clavicular (AC) joint is very susceptible to degenerative processes that result in pain and functional impairment. One common modality of treatment has been local infiltration of the joint space. Although this procedure has produced notable positive results, needle misplacement occurs frequently. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the effects of an intra articular infiltration by comparing precise needle placement into the joint space using high-resolution-ultrasound with the conventional palpation technique. Methods: This prospective and randomized pilot study analysed 20 patients who were assigned either to the 'ultrasound' or the 'palpation' group. Clinical examinations were performed before treatment and at 1 h, 1 week and 3 weeks after a single infiltration of local anaesthetic and corticoid carried out by one specialist. Results: In both groups significant improvement in pain and function was obtained up to one-week post injection. Function remained significantly improved until the last follow-up and did not differ between the two groups. The agent was administered in all patients into the joint space in the ultrasound group. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided infiltration of the AC joint is an easily achieved procedure without any complications. However, clinical follow-up did not differ between free-hand and ultrasound-guided AC joint space infiltration.
[en] Following on from diagnosis using ultrasound, hydrostatic reduction using saline enema under ultrasound guidance was tried in 20 cases of childhood intussusception. The conclusions were as follows: 1. Success rates of saline enema under ultrasound guidance during a first-8 month period (P1) and a second-10 month period (P2) were 55.6% (5/9) and 54.5% (6/11) respectively. Average success rate was 55% (11/20). 2. During the periods of P1 and P2, no case was reduced by barium enema in 6 cases of failed reduction with saline enema. 3. During the period of P2, 5 cases of successful reduction with saline enema were confirmed by clinical follow-up without barium enema. 4. During the periods of P1 and P2, 9 cases of failed reduction with saline enema were operated, resulting in 6 cases of segmental resection and 3 cases of manual reduction. 5. The obvious advantages of this method are: 1. No radiation hazard. 2. No fear of barium peritonitis. 3. Detection of leading point. 6. With above results, this method could completely replace barium enema. And ultrasonography should be the initial study in the evaluation of intussusception in children and then if necessary, saline enema under ultrasound guidance should be done.