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[en] The water hyacinth project was first reviewed at the time of its commencement in Papua New Guinea in June 1979, and activities and time schedules were formulated. In April 1980 an interim review meeting was held in London where, based on the progress made in the participating countries, activities and time schedules were refined and sharpened. The project is deemed to have formally commenced on 1 January 1980. Australia, Bangladesh, Fiji, India, Malaysia and Sri Lanka are actively participating in the project at the present time. Information and results emerging from the different participating countries are very encouraging and they strengthen the hope that technically, environmentally and economically feasible solutions can be found for managing water hyacinth weed. The participating countries are enthusiastic about handling the activities assigned to them. The tempo of work was substantially increased after funds were made available in February 1980
[en] Many of the major environmental problems of today, such as climate change, air pollution, acidification of lakes and forests, deforestation and desertification, share a common causal factor: energy - its production, transformation and final use. The burning of fossil fuels has already contributed to acidification of lakes and forests, and threatens to alter the world's climate. Traditional open fires cause indoor air pollution, thereby harming the health of women and children in the Third World. In many developing countries, the disappearing forest base is increasingly unable to supply enough wood for energy needs, leading to even greater pressure on forests, which in turn can lead to desertification. Nuclear reactor accidents may release large quantities of radioactive materials, and hydro dams may fail and inundate large areas of land. Indeed, every energy system has some impact on health and the environment, either affecting the same group of people who enjoy the benefits: the exposure of a small group to fumes from a poorly vented common cooking device; or a different group: acid rain in one country caused by the burning of fossil fuels in another, or harm to the health of future generations from today's radioactive nuclear waste. During the past two decades, these energy- environment impacts have become so serious that they may limit further growth of the world's energy economy. Consequently, these problems are now being examined more closely by decision makers throughout the world, as well as by the general public. In addition, it has become clear that energy cannot be viewed in isolation and that pollution, environment and health issues must be integrated into the development of national and international energy policies, so that the adverse impacts of energy can be reduced. To do this, the relationships among different energy systems and their impacts need to be defined clearly. To that end, UNEP has convened conferences on this topic and prepared several in-depth reviews of the health and environmental implications of various forms of energy production and use. Some reports are intended for decision makers; others for professionals working on energy planning and development. This report describes the health and environmental consequences of different energy systems in a brief and simplified way to readers who m no be familiar with all the technical details
PurposeRegionalized life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) has rapidly developed in the past decade, though its widespread application, robustness, and validity still face multiple challenges. Under the umbrella of UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, a dedicated cross-cutting working group on regionalized LCIA aims to provide an overview of the status of regionalization in LCIA methods. We give guidance and recommendations to harmonize and support regionalization in LCIA for developers of LCIA methods, LCI databases, and LCA software.
MethodsA survey of current practice among regionalized LCIA method developers was conducted. The survey included questions on chosen method’s spatial resolution and scale, the spatial resolution of input parameters, the choice of native spatial resolution and limitations, operationalization and alignment with life cycle inventory data, methods for spatial aggregation, the assessment of uncertainty from input parameters and model structure, and the variability due to spatial aggregation. Recommendations are formulated based on the survey results and extensive discussion by the authors.
Results and discussionSurvey results indicate that majority of regionalized LCIA models have global coverage. Native spatial resolutions are generally chosen based on the availability of global input data. Annual modeled or measured elementary flow quantities are mostly used for aggregating characterization factors (CFs) to larger spatial scales, although some use proxies, such as population counts. Aggregated CFs are mostly available at the country level. Although uncertainty due to input parameter, model structure, and spatial aggregation are available for some LCIA methods, they are rarely implemented for LCA studies. So far, there is no agreement if a finer native spatial resolution is the best way to reduce overall uncertainty. When spatially differentiated model CFs are not easily available, archetype models are sometimes developed.
ConclusionsRegionalized LCIA methods should be provided as a transparent and consistent set of data and metadata using standardized data formats. Regionalized CFs should include both uncertainty and variability. In addition to the native-scale CFs, aggregated CFs should always be provided and should be calculated as the weighted averages of constituent CFs using annual flow quantities as weights whenever available. This paper is an important step forward for increasing transparency, consistency, and robustness in the development and application of regionalized LCIA methods.
[en] This publication describes the methods, assumptions and parameters used by the IAEA during the assessment of the post-conflict radiological conditions of the environment and populations in relation to the residues of depleted uranium munitions from 2003 that exist at four selected areas in southern Iraq. The studies conducted by the IAEA used the results of measurements provided by UNEP from the 2006-2007 environmental monitoring campaigns performed by the Iraqi Ministry for the Environment. It presents the data used, the results of the assessment, and the findings and conclusions in connection therewith.
[en] From a slow start, the clean development mechanism (CDM) market has recently experienced enormous growth. However, the CDM market has been increasingly criticised, resulting in a lively debate about how to reform, complement, or replace it. In order to increase transparency and assist policy-makers in better understanding the current market, we depart from the traditional project-level perspective on CDM and analyse commercial activities by utilising data from UNEP Risoe's CDM Bazaar. To this end, we first establish a seven-step value chain by conducting a factor analysis on the commercial activities indicated in the Bazaar and, second, identify nine prevalent business models with a cluster analysis of all 495 participating organisations. Based on these analyses, we discuss potential impacts on the value chain of different policy scenarios that rely on carbon credits as incentive. We find that the importance of specific regulatory CDM know-how and general business activities such as finance varies strongly with the different policy scenarios. Our analysis serves to sensitise policy-makers and business about implications of different regulatory designs.
[en] After reviewing relevant climate impact assessment guidelines derived from those of the United States Country Study Program (USCSP), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and UNEP, the author adopted a set of impact assessment steps towards a methodological procedure for assessing vulnerability and adaptation (V and A) in a Bangladesh coastal cyclone-prone area. This paper classifies and prioritizes the intensity of V and A issues through weighting index values of two recent cyclones: ‘Sidr’ in 2007 and ‘Aila’ in 2009. This study offers a model using V and A techniques ideal for immediate policy-making in order to reduce future vulnerability at local level.
[en] Waste as a management issue has been evident for over four millennia. Disposal of waste to the biosphere has given way to thinking about, and trying to implement, an integrated waste management approach. In 1996 the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) defined 'integrated waste management' as 'a framework of reference for designing and implementing new waste management systems and for analysing and optimising existing systems'. In this paper the concept of integrated waste management as defined by UNEP is considered, along with the parameters that constitute integrated waste management. The examples used are put into four categories: (1) integration within a single medium (solid, aqueous or atmospheric wastes) by considering alternative waste management options (2) multi-media integration (solid, aqueous, atmospheric and energy wastes) by considering waste management options that can be applied to more than one medium (3) tools (regulatory, economic, voluntary and informational) and (4) agents (governmental bodies (local and national), businesses and the community). This evaluation allows guidelines for enhancing success: (1) as experience increases, it is possible to deal with a greater complexity; and (2) integrated waste management requires a holistic approach, which encompasses a life cycle understanding of products and services. This in turn requires different specialisms to be involved in the instigation and analysis of an integrated waste management system. Taken together these advance the path to sustainability
[en] In recent years the International Atomic Energy Agency has intensified its programme relating to the protection of man and the environment. These activities are increasingly being carried out in co-operation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The two organizations share important common characteristics; each has a broad mandate crossing many lines of organized activity; and each has a predominant interest in matters of environmental protection. From the outset, it has been clear that the two bodies also share important areas of mutual interest, and both the Agency's statute and the UN Resolution creating UNEP provide the basis for close collaboration. (author)
[en] Climate Technocal Centre and Network (CTCN): • Supporting the deployment of climate technologies in developing countries with 152 country focal points and 250 implementing partners. • Leveraging UNIDO and UNEP expertise plus a global technology network of 500+ private sector and civil society organizations. • Providing demand-driven technical assistance and capacity building. • Sharing the largest source of online climate technology info in the world: www.ctc-n.org