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[en] Much of our knowledge regarding cancer immunotherapy has been derived from sarcoma models. However, translation of preclinical findings to bedside success has been limited in this disease, though several intriguing clinical studies hint at the potential efficacy of this treatment modality. The rarity and heterogeneity of tumors of mesenchymal origin continues to be a challenge from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, sarcomas remain attractive targets for immunotherapy, as they can be characterized by specific epitopes, either from their mesenchymal origins or specific alterations in gene products. To date, standard vaccine trials have proven disappointing, likely due to mechanisms by which tumors equilibrate with and ultimately escape immune surveillance. More sophisticated approaches will likely require multimodal techniques, both by enhancing immunity, but also geared towards overcoming innate mechanisms of immunosuppression that favor tumorigenesis
[en] Highlights: • Novel glycosylation sites rescue virion secretion of G145R and N146Q mutants. • G145R, N146Q, and M133T mutations modulate virion secretion through S protein. • Many immune escape mutants are not impaired in secretion of subviral particles. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) expresses three co-terminal envelope proteins: large (L), middle (M), and small (S), with the S protein driving the secretion of both virions and subviral particles. Virion secretion requires N-linked glycosylation at N146 in the S domain but can be impaired by immune escape mutations. An M133T mutation creating a novel glycosylation site at N131could rescue virion secretion of N146Q mutant (loss of original glycosylation site) and immune escape mutants such as G145R. Here we demonstrate that other novel N-linked glycosylation sites could rescue virion secretion of the G145R and N146Q mutants to variable extents. Both G145R and N146Q mutations impaired virion secretion through the S protein. The M133T mutation restored virion secretion through the S protein, and could work in trans. Impaired virion secretion was not necessarily associated with a similar block in the secretion of subviral particles.
[en] Highlights: • Helicobacter flagellin (hFlg) evades TLR5 by modifying a TLR5-activation hot spot. • The hypervariable domains of hFlg were identified as the soluble part of hFlg. • hFlg was engineered to activate TLR5 through fusion with Bacillus flagellin. Helicobacter pylori is a flagellated bacterium of the Epsilonproteobacteria class that causes peptic ulcers. Flagellin is a primary structural protein that assembles into the flagellar filament. Flagellins from bacteria that belong to the Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes groups are detected by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the host, triggering the innate immune response, and thus have been studied for the development of vaccines against diverse infections through fusion with protein antigens. However, H. pylori flagellin (hFlg) does not stimulate TLR5, allowing H. pylori to evade TLR5-mediated immune surveillance. The unresponsiveness of TLR5 to hFlg, along with the tendency of the hFlg protein to precipitate, limits the utility of hFlg for H. pylori vaccine development. Here, we report a soluble hFlg derivative protein that activates TLR5. We performed expression and purification screens with full-length and fragment hFlg proteins and identified the hypervariable domains as the soluble part of hFlg. The hypervariable domains of hFlg were engineered into a TLR5 agonist through fusion with the TLR5-activating Bacillus subtilis flagellin. Furthermore, based on comparative sequence and mutation analyses, we reveal that hFlg evolved to evade TLR5 detection by modifying residues that correspond to a TLR5-activation hot spot.
[en] Cold adapted influenza virus A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) is a reliable master donor virus (Len/17-MDV) for preparing live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV). LAIVs are 6:2 reasortants that contain 6 segments of Len/17-MDV and the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of contemporary circulating influenza A viruses. The problem with the classical reassortment procedure used to generate LAIVs is that there is limited selection pressure against NA of the Len/17-MDV resulting in 7:1 reassortants with desired HA only, which are not suitable LAIVs. The monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against the N2 of Len/17-MDV were generated. 10C4–8E7 mAb inhibits cell-to-cell spread of viruses containing the Len/17-MDV N2, but not viruses with the related N2 from contemporary H3N2 viruses. 10C4–8E7 antibody specifically inhibited the Len/17-MDV replication in vitro and in ovo but didn’t inhibit replication of H3N2 or H1N1pdm09 reassortants. Our data demonstrate that addition of 10C4–8E7 in the classical reassortment improves efficiency of LAIV production.
[en] The only commercially available irradiated vaccine is Dictol, the anti-Dictiyocaulus viviparus vaccine used in cattle. This succesful product has been in use for over 20 years. Irradiated vaccines have been applied to a number of different host-parasite systems and it has been shown that a high degree of protection can be conferred on the host by administration of radiation-attenuated larvae. In this paper, present situation of radiation attenuated vaccines against helminthic diseases of ruminants is reviewed. (author)
[en] Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge. F VLP priming redirected pulmonary T cells toward effector CD8 T cells producing Th1 cytokines and significantly suppressed pulmonary Th2 cytokines. This study suggests that RSV F VLP priming would modulate and shift immune responses to subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV vaccine and RSV infection, suppressing Th2 immune-mediated pulmonary histopathology and eosinophilia. - Highlights: • RSV F VLP priming dictates the type of subsequent immune responses to FI-RSV. • F VLP priming redirects pulmonary T cells toward effector CD8 T cells. • F VLP priming suppresses Th2 immune-mediated pulmonary histopathology.
[en] Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an improtant opportunistic pathogen that can cause infection in immunocompromised patient. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major surface antigen of P. aeruginosa, is immunogenic and elieits protective antibodies in animals. The O-polysaccharids (O-PS) from international Antigenic typing Scheme (IATS) 10, the antigenic determinant of LPS, was coupled to recombinant exoprotein A (rPA) through adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) mediated by carbodiimide condensation reaction. Mice were immunized with the conjugate emulsifield with monophosphoryl lipid A-trehalose dicorynomycolate (MPL-T) and freund's adjuvants. The conjiugate emulsified with MPL-T adjuvant elicited the highest level of IgG and IgM followed by freuns's adjuvant. IgG titers using both MPL-T and freund's adjuvants were recorded to be higher than IgM titers after the second post of the immunization. Immunization of mice with the prepared conjugates emulsified with MPL-T and freund's adjvaided provide high level of protection (100%) against ten times the LD50 of homologous strain of P. aeruginsoa. the elicited high IgG level and the in vivo protection test results provided good evidences for the possible protection of the conjugate aginst subsequent infection with the pathogen. These findings will enable us to use it as protective vaccine candidate (authors).