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[en] This paper presents a general model and its experimental validation for electrically tunable electromagnetic energy harvesters. Electrical tuning relies on the adjustment of the electrical load so that the maximum output power of the energy harvester occurs at a frequency which is different from the mechanical resonant frequency of the energy harvester. Theoretical analysis shows that for this approach to be feasible the electromagnetic vibration energy harvester’s coupling factor must be maximized so that its resonant frequency can be tuned with the minimum decrease of output power. Two different-sized electromagnetic energy harvesters were built and tested to validate the model. Experimentally, the micro-scale energy harvester has a coupling factor of 0.0035 and an untuned resonant frequency of 70.05 Hz. When excited at 30 mg, it was tuned by 0.23 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 4000 nF; its effective tuning range is 0.15 Hz for a capacitive load variation from 0 to 1500 nF. The macro-scale energy harvester has a coupling factor of 552.25 and an untuned resonant frequency of 95.1 Hz and 95.5 Hz when excited at 10 mg and 25 mg, respectively. When excited at 10 mg, it was tuned by 3.8 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 1400 nF; it has an effective tuning range of 3.5 Hz for a capacitive load variation from 0 to 1200 nF. When excited at 25 mg, its resonant frequency was tuned by 4.2 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 1400 nF; it has an effective tuning range of about 5 Hz. Experimental results were found to agree with the theoretical analysis to within 10%. (paper)
[en] A new method for performance validation of surface texture parameter calculation software is introduced, focussing on field surface texture parameters. Surface height functions are defined mathematically, either using Fourier series or polynomials, and are then input into the surface texture parameter definitions to obtain mathematical parameter values. A series of user-adjustable parametric surface functions are defined that correspond to each surface texture parameter, enabling users to create a variety of surfaces to assess their software whilst still retaining mathematical traceability. This method is expanded to include complex surface textures. Chebyshev polynomials are used to perform numerical calculations of surface texture parameters for a selection of polynomial surface functions. Mathematical reference parameter values are calculated for a series of fifteen predefined surfaces and ten parametric surfaces to assess the performance of the software under test for a given dataset resolution. Assessment of the number of significant figures of the software-obtained values that agree with the reference values is used as a performance metric that enables comparison between different third-party software applications for a given dataset resolution. An assessment of the sampling methods used to create discrete datasets of a mathematical surface function for use with numerical third-party software is performed. Two implementations of surface height sampling are used to create datasets that are input into four third-party surface texture parameter calculation software packages, and the results compared, showing a significant variation in the performance metric values for different sampling methods. (paper)
[en] Re-irradiation using high-precision radiation techniques has been established within the clinical routine for patients with recurrent gliomas. In the present work, we developed a practical prognostic score to predict survival outcome after re-irradiation. Patients and methods. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) was applied in 233 patients. Primary histology included glioblastoma (n = 89; 38%), WHO Grade III gliomas (n = 52; 22%) and low-grade glioma (n = 92; 40%). FSRT was applied with a median dose of 36 Gy in 2 Gy single fractions. We evaluated survival after re-irradiation as well as progression-free survival after re-irradiation; prognostic factors analyzed included age, tumor volume at re-irradiation, histology, time between initial radiotherapy and re-irradiation, age and Karnofsky Performance Score. Results. Median survival after FSRT was 8 months for glioblastoma, 20 months for anaplastic gliomas, and 24 months for recurrent low-grade patients. The strongest prognostic factors significantly impacting survival after re-irradiation were histology (p <0.0001) and age (<50 vs. =≥50, p < 0.0001) at diagnosis and the time between initial radiotherapy and re-irradiation ≤12 vs. >12 months (p < 0.0001). We generated a four-class prognostic score to distinguish patients with excellent (0 points), good (1 point), moderate (2 points) and poor (3-4 points) survival after re-irradiation. The difference in outcome was highly significant (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. We generated a practical prognostic score index based on three clinically relevant factors to predict the benefit of patients from re-irradiation. This score index can be helpful in patient counseling, and for the design of further clinical trials. However, individual treatment decisions may include other patient-related factors not directly influencing outcome.
[en] Accurate determination of collimator output factors is important for Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The new Leksell Gamma Knife (registered) Perfexion(TM) system has a completely redesigned collimator system and the collimator output factors are different from the other Leksell Gamma Knife (registered) models. In this study, a simple method was developed to validate the collimator output factors specifically for Leksell Gamma Knife (registered) Perfexion(TM). The method uses double-shot exposures on a single film to eliminate repeated setups and the necessity to acquire dose calibration curves required for the traditional film exposure method. Using the method, the collimator output factors with respect to the 16 mm collimator were measured to be 0.929 ± 0.009 and 0.817 ± 0.012 for the 8 mm and the 4 mm collimator, respectively. These values are in agreement (within 2%) with the default values of 0.924 and 0.805 in the Leksell Gamma Plan (registered) treatment planning system. These values also agree with recently published results of 0.917 (8 mm collimator) and 0.818 (4 mm collimator) obtained from the traditional methods. Given the efficiency of the method, measurement and validation of the collimator output factors can be readily adopted in commissioning and quality assurance of a Leksell Gamma Knife (registered) Perfexion(TM) system.
[en] In this presentation the experiences of the LHC experiments using grid computing were presented with a focus on experience with distributed analysis. After many years of development, preparation, exercises, and validation the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments are in operations. The computing infrastructure has been heavily utilized in the first 6 months of data collection. The general experience of exploiting the grid infrastructure for organized processing and preparation is described, as well as the successes employing the infrastructure for distributed analysis. At the end the expected evolution and future plans are outlined.
[en] This study reported optimization of palm fruit sterilization process by microwave irradiation. The results of fractional factorial experiments showed no significant external factors affecting temperature of microwave sterilization (MS). Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed and model equation of MS of palm fruit was built. Response surface plots and their corresponding contour plots were analyzed as well as solving model equation. The optimum process parameters for lipase reduction were obtained from MS of 1 kg palm fruit at microwave power of 486 Watt and heating time of 14 minutes. The experimental results showed reduction of lipase activity in the present work under MS treatment. The adequacy of the model equation for predicting the optimum response value was verified by validation data (P>0.15). (paper)
[en] Multifractal formalism in the microcanonical framework has proved to be a valuable approach to understand and analyze complex signals, typically associated with natural phenomena in scale invariant systems. In this paper, we discuss the multifractal microcanonical formalism in a comprehensive, unified way, including new theoretical proofs and validation tests on real signals, so completing some known gaps in the foundations of this theory. We also review the latest advances and describe the present perspectives in this field. Some technical details on the implementation of involved algorithms and relevant open issues are also discussed
[en] Highlights: • CFD and CSM codes are coupled. • Validation on Vattenfall Rod Vibration Experiment are performed. • Vibrations from an external load are modelled. • Comparative analyses have been performed.