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[en] A standardized, accurate, and easy system is needed to describe Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) plant development. Therefore, this study was designed to define stages of development descriptions for Jerusalem artichoke. Field experiments were conducted during early rainy season and the post rainy season of 2011 and 2012. Data were collected and uniform growth stage descriptions, based on visually observable events, were developed for the vegetative (V), reproductive (R) and tuberization (T) stages. The V stage was determined by counting the number of developed nodes on the main axis of the Jerusalem artichoke, beginning with emergence of the sprout seedling and ending with the initial visual appearance of the inflorescence. The proposed R stages include R1 (Floral bud formation), R2 (beginning bloom), R3 (flowering), R4 (beginning of anthesis), R5 (seed set) and R6 (seed maturity). The T stage include T1 (stolonization), T2 (tuber initiation), T3 (tuber formation), T4 (tuber bulking), T5 (skin set) and T6 (tuber maturity). The V, R and T stages can be measured separately and concurrently and apply to populations or single plants. The present study revealed that reproductive and tuberization development occurred more rapidly in the post-rainy season than in the early-rainy season. The proposed standard descriptions of Jerusalem artichoke development will help research and extension personnel better communicate results and recommendations related to this crop. (author)
[en] The Cd, Pb, Cu, Fe and Zn contents of some edible vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, flower, nut, corn and olive) and of olives (olive-1, black, green, black crushed with seeds and green crushed with seeds) were determined and evaluated by an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS) using an Sc + Ir + NH4H2PO4 chemical modifier mixture and flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) after microwave digestion. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures of Cd, Pb and Cu in sample solutions with and without the modifier mixture were investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) for analytes found are 0.1, 0.6, 0.9, 15.0 and 12.0 μg L-1 for Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Zn, respectively. The accuracy of the procedure proposed was confirmed by analyzing bovine liver 1577b standard reference material (SRM) and a spiked sample solution. The results of the analytes found were compared with certified and added values. The relative standard deviations of the analytes found were lower than 7% and the percent of recoveries obtained ranges from 96 to 101%. The Sc + Ir + NH4H2PO4 mixture proposed was applied for the determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in oils and olives. The results of analytes found in the samples were compared with international and national food quality guidelines as well as with literature values. (Author) 48 refs.
[en] The storage problem of fruits and vegetables is explained. The effect of gamma radiation on storage properties, organoleptic characteristics and chemical constituents of various fruits and vegetables has been discussed. The wholesomeness and clearance of various irradiated products is reviewed and the cost economics of the radiation technology calculated. It is concluded that since the problem of food spoilage is acute in Pakistan, radiation technique should be used commercially for food preservation
[en] Capsicum pubescens, a chili specie present in south Mexico (Veracruz state) registers upon 30% loss due to the constraints of the market. Therefore, the objective of this project was to determine the physical and chemical parameters of Capsicum pubescens as well as to evaluate the kinetics of drying of this species. Color tests revealed that the samples were the color was less affected by drying conditions (p>0.05) correspond to those dried at 60oC (0.5 cm thickness), and 50oC (0.5 and 1 cm thickness) which coincides with the preference of surveyed population. Thus, Capsicum pubescens may be dried under these conditions. (Author)
[en] Agitated thin film dryers (ATFD) has been considered as an effective technology for drying viscous liquid foods, pastes or pureed foods. In this study, a lab-scale ATFD was developed and applied for drying of juices from spinach leaves at varying temperature (60 – 90 030AC), feed rate (0.3 – 0.5 kg/h) and blade rotation speed (300 – 600 RPM) combinations. Juice suspensions were successfully dried into powder with a moisture content ranging from 0.049 to 0.114 kg/kg total. Increasing the wall temperature and feed rate were found to improve the specific evaporation rate and evaporation rate of the ATFD, respectively. The blade rotation speed had limited effect on the water removal rate, while it played a crucial role in powder formation. (Author)
[en] A combination of high power airborne ultrasound and microwaves in hot air drying was developed to investigate the effect of intermittent mode on process effectiveness and quality of carrot. The drying experiments were carried out inan innovative hybrid dryer. The course of moisture ratio, drying rate, specific energy and water consumption,colour, water activity and shrinkage were discussed. The results showed that intermittent ultrasound and microwaves in convective drying accelerate the heat and mass transfer, leading to shorter drying time and faster drying rate. It was found that hybrid-intermittent drying can improve the energy efficiency and product quality. (Author)
[en] This paper concerns hybrid drying of kale. Eight different schedules of drying were tested experimentally to find out the influence of microwave enhancement on the kinetics (drying rate and time), energy consumption of convective drying and quality of products. Different power of microwaves and modes of microwave application were tested. Quality of products was assesed through water activity and colour measurements, as well as retention of ascorbic acid. The results obtained in the studies allowed to state that intermittent application of high-power microwave pulses may lead to a meaningful reduction of drying time and high quality of the dry products. (Author)
[en] There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC) occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls) was conducted in Cordoba (Argentina) throughout 2008-2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils), Prudent (non starchy vegetables, whole grains), Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products), and Cheese (cheeses). High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95 % CI: 1.569-5.099) and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95 % CI: 1.470-3.128) showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence.
[en] In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of partial replacement of beef fat with olive oil on quality changes of fermented turkey sausages (sucuk) during processing. Three formulations were prepared by using the lipid phase as 100% beef fat (control), 85% beef fat+15% olive oil and 70% beef fat+30% olive oil. Total moisture, pH, acidity, water activity (aw) and peroxide values were analyzed in sausage dough, at the end of the fermentation and at the end of ripening. The production steps significantly affected moisture decrease in samples, pH and aw values were decreased and acidity was increased in all samples during production. Peroxide value of the samples increased during processing steps and the samples with olive oil had higher peroxide values compared to control. The results showed that during processing steps of fermented turkey sausages, considerable changes could occur depending on lipid type. (Author)