Results 1 - 10 of 1962
Results 1 - 10 of 1962. Search took: 0.025 seconds
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[en] Highlights: • S31W and R145W introduce an extra fluorophore in βB2-crystallin. • S31W and R145W destabilize βB2-crystallin and promote thermal aggregation. • S31W accelerates but R145W retards UV-induced aggregation of βB2-crystallin. • The number of Trp fluorophores in β/γ-crystallin is evolutionarily optimized. β/γ-Crystallins are predominant structural proteins in vertebrate lens with unique properties of extremely high solubility, long-term stability and resistance to UV damage. Four conserved Trp residues in β/γ-crystallins account for UV absorbance and thereafter fluorescence quenching to avoid photodamage. Herein we found that βB2-crystallin Trp fluorescence was greatly enhanced by the introduction of an extra unquenched Trp fluorophore by cataract-associated mutations S31W and R145W. Both mutations impaired oligomerization, decreased stability and promote thermal aggregation, while S31W was more deleterious. S31W accelerated βB2-crystallin aggregation under UV damaging conditions, whereas R145W delayed. These observations suggested that the introduction of an extra Trp fluorophore had complicated effects on βB2-crystallin stability and aggregation against various stresses. Our findings highlight that the number of Trp fluorophores in β/γ-crystallin is evolutionarily optimized to exquisitely perform their structural roles in the lens.
[en] Highlights: • Sodium benzoate induced developmental defects in zebrafish. • Sodium benzoate induced oxidative stress in zebrafish by upregulation of glutathione reductase (gsr). • Sodium benzoate induced anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish. Sodium benzoate (SB) is a common food preservative. Its FDA described safety limit is 1000 ppm. Lately, increased use of SB has prompted investigations regarding its effects on biological systems. Data regarding toxicity of SB is divergent and controversial with studies reporting both harmful and beneficial effects. Therefore, we did a systematic dose dependent toxicity study of SB using zebrafish vertebrate animal model. We also investigated oxidative stress and anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish larva treated with SB. Our results indicate that SB induced developmental (delayed hatching), morphological (pericardial edema, yolk sac edema and tail bending), biochemical (oxidative stress) and behavioural (anxiety-like behaviour) abnormalities in developing zebrafish larva. LC50 of SB induced toxicity was approximately 400 ppm after 48 h of SB exposure. Our study strongly supports its harmful effects on vertebrates at increasing doses. Thus, we suggest caution in the excessive use of this preservative in processed and convenience foods.
[en] This contribution makes reference to new findings, product of paleontological surveys performed in the Mangrullo Formation in the NE region of the country. The presence of a new group of vertebrates associated to mesosaurid remains was confirmed , in strata where only the latter where recorded until this moment. Palynological analysis were carried out in fossil bearing levels confirming a Terminal Permian Age and a possibly non marine acuatic depostional environment under an arid climate. (author)
[en] The electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the common fishes e.g. Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Wallago attu, Heterop-neustes fossilis; amphibia e.g., Rana tigrina, Rana cyanophlyctis, Bufo melanostictus; reptiles e.g. Varanus bengalensis, Uromastix hardwickii; birds e.g. Columba livia, Gallus domesticus, Passer domestica, Anas platyrhynchos; and mammals e.g. Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Lepus cuniculus have been described. The mobility of proteins of blood sera has been studied over cellulose acetate paper and then a comparative pattern analysed
[en] Success of vertebrate translocations is crucial to improve efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions but it is often difficult to assess because negative results (failed translocations) are seldom published. We developed surveys and sent them to heads of conservation services in three major Spanish Mediterranean regions. The purpose of our surveys was to determine which methodological factor, that could easily be implemented in practice, was more influential for translocation success. These factors included the origin of translocated individuals (captive or wild) and translocation effort (propagule size and program duration). After analyzing 83 programs, corresponding to 34 different vertebrate species, by means of generalized linear mixed modelling, we found that ‘origin’ was more relevant for translocation success than ‘effort’, although we could not rule out some role of translocation effort. Variance in success of translocation programs involving individuals from wild sources was smaller and consequently results more predictable. Origin interacted with taxa so that success was higher when using wild birds and especially wild fish and mammals, but not when releasing reptiles. Hence, we suggest that, for any given effort, translocation results will be better for most vertebrate taxa if individuals from wild sources are used. When this is not feasible, managers should release captive–reared individuals for a long number of years rather than a short number of years. (Author)
[en] Mechanisms involved in establishing the organization and numbers of fibres in a muscle are not completely understood. During Drosophila indirect flight muscle (IFM) formation, muscle growth is achieved by both incorporating hundreds of nuclei, and hypertrophy. As a result, IFMs provide a good model with which to understand the mechanisms that govern overall muscle organization and growth. We present a detailed analysis of the organization of dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs), a subset of the IFMs. We show that each DLM is similar to a vertebrate fascicle and consists of multiple muscle fibres. However, increased fascicle size does not necessarily change the number of constituent fibres, but does increase the number of myofibrils packed within the fibres. We also find that altering the number of myoblasts available for fusion changes DLM fascicle size and fibres are loosely packed with myofibrils. Additionally, we show that knock down of genes required for mitochondrial fusion causes a severe reduction in the size of DLM fascicles and fibres. Our results establish the organization levels of DLMs and highlight the importance of the appropriate number of nuclei and mitochondrial fusion in determining the overall organization, growth and size of DLMs. - Highlights: • Drosophila dorsal longitudinal muscles are similar to vertebrate skeletal muscles. • A threshold number of myoblasts governs the organization of a fibre and its size. • Mitochondrial fusion defect leads to abnormal fibre growth and organization