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[en] The review article “Emergence and fate of cyclic volatile polydimethylsiloxanes (D4, D5) in municipal waste streams: Release mechanisms, partitioning and persistence in air, water, soil and sediments” by Surita and Tansel covers a relevant topic, but there are several serious issues with this paper. The inappropriate handling of data gathered from various sources has resulted in a flawed dataset. In addition, the authors performed several erroneous or meaningless calculations with the data. Their dataset leads to incorrect and misleading interpretations and should not be used
[en] Highlights: • Ion mobility coupled to gas chromatography (GC-IMS) enables booster control in table tennis. • Characteristic VOC patterns of table tennis coverings and from boosters can be differentiated. • Quantitative and selective determination of relevant compounds by calibration. • Short analysis time (1–2 min) using mobile GC-IMS allows booster monitoring on-site. • This analytical tool GC-IMS could help keeping sports fair and equitable. In all professional sports, performance pressure is high at the top level. Therefore, rules are defined and controlled to keep sports fair in accordance e.g. with the Agenda 21 of the International Olympic Committee. However, it’s about money and honour and as a consequence it is obvious that the athletes will go to the limits at all levels or even beyond. This is not only true for performance-enhancing substances to improve the physical capacity but – when sports equipment is involved – also for their optimisation. Thus, rules and related controls are necessary with regard to fairness between competitors but also with regard to their health when chemicals are involved. In table tennis, such chemicals (so-called boosters) are used occasionally – but against the rules – to improve the performance of the rackets. In the present study, several boosters were analysed as well as numerous common racket coverings using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to gas-chromatographic pre-separation. After optimisation of sampling with regard to improving reproducibility, characteristic patterns of volatiles for booster compounds and for racket coverings with different characteristics were developed successfully. In particular, signals related to particular softening agents could be identified and detected even in the untreated coverings. The patterns of volatiles were found to be characteristic for the particular boosters investigated as well as for the particular coverings. Furthermore, those patterns enable a differentiation between booster and covering or – in other words – between rule-consistent racket coverings and rule violation by after treatment of the rubber with a booster. After adaptation of the entire procedure to realistic competition situations, the method could be used for proving an infringement against the prohibition of applying such compounds.
[en] This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1 x 1 km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a heavily cultivated, central European country) are compared with anthropogenic emissions, both for the entire country and for individual administrative regions. In some regions, BVOC emissions are as high as anthropogenic emissions; however, in most regions the BVOC emissions are approximately 50% of the anthropogenic emissions. The yearly course of BVOC emissions (represented by monoterpenes and isoprene) is presented, along with the spatial distribution of annual mean values. Differences in emission distributions during winter (January) and summer (June) are also considered. - The amount of the biogenic VOCs emitted over the central Europe is comparable with the anthropogenic VOC emissions from this region.
[en] Highlights: • Rhododendron tomentosum volatiles (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) adsorb toand are re-emitted by neighbouring plants. • Mixing RT volatiles with 100ppb ozone changes the blend of the volatile bouquet by degrading some compounds. • Volatile degradation due to ozone affects re-emission from the surface of neighbouring plants. • Mixing RT volatiles with ozone does not affect the deterrent properties it conveys on neighbouring plants. The perennial evergreen woody shrub, Rhododendron tomentosum, confers associational resistance against herbivory and oviposition on neighbouring plants through passive adsorption of some of its constitutively emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The adsorption process is dependent on transport of VOCs in the air. In polluted atmospheres, the VOCs may be degraded and adsorption impeded. We studied the effect of elevated ozone regimes on the adsorption of R. tomentosum volatiles to white cabbage, Brassica oleracea, and the oviposition of the specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella on the exposed plants. We found evidence for adsorption and re-emission of R. tomentosum volatiles by B. oleracea plants. Ozone changed the blend of R. tomentosum volatiles and reduced the amount of R. tomentosum volatiles recovered from B. oleracea plants. However, plants exposed to R. tomentosum volatiles received fewer P. xylostella eggs than control plants exposed to filtered air irrespective of whether R. tomentosum volatiles mixed with ozone. Ozone disrupts a volatile mediated passive plant-to-plant interaction by degrading some compounds and reducing the quantity available for adsorption by neighbouring plants. The change, however, did not affect the deterrence of oviposition by P. xylostella, suggesting that aromatic companion plants of Brassica crops may confer pest-deterring properties even in ozone-polluted environments.
[en] Highlights: ► A new bioassay for testing the toxicity of VOCs on groundwater fauna is presented. ► Results on the toxicity of toluene to Niphargus inopinatus are now available. ► Henry equilibrium needs to be considered when bioassays with VOCs are designed. ► Methodological aspects related to “difficult-to-test substances” are discussed. -- Abstract: A protocol was developed for testing the ecotoxicological effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on groundwater invertebrates. Test substance volatility was addressed in a “closed from start to analysis”-design. Since manifestation of toxic effects may be delayed in ‘slower metabolizing’ organisms such as groundwater fauna, a time-independent (TI-) approach was adopted. Toluene was used as a model substance and its toxicity to the groundwater amphipod Niphargus inopinatus was assessed as an example. The method evaluation process considered various methodological issues such as partitioning of the toxicant between the water and the gas phase (Henry equilibrium), the possible depletion of oxygen in closed test vials, as well as microbial biodegradation of the test substance. For N. inopinatus, an LC50,14days of 46.6 mg L−1 toluene was obtained. The ultimate LC50 value was estimated at 23.3 mg L−1 toluene. No oxygen depletion occurred in the test vials and Henry equilibrium was found to be established after 6 h. The new test system proposed now awaits broad practical application
[en] Groundwater contamination, consisting of chlorinated solvents, was identified in the southeastern portion of the Pinellas Site in Largo, Florida. The contamination is beneath Building 100, an 11-acre building that housed manufacturing facilities during US Department of Energy (DOE) operations at the site. Because the building was constructed in phases over a period of decades, it is comprised of approximately 20 different buildings, each with a separate foundation, all of which are now connected under a single roof. Based on the results of a pilot test that indicated the presence of volatile organic compounds beneath the floor slab and, in the absence of state regulations or guidance, DOE elected to proactively address the potential for release of these compounds into the facility by designing and installing a vapor intrusion (VI) mitigation system. To ventilate vapors from beneath the building, piping was installed from beneath the concrete floor slab through the roof, and negative pressure was created using electric blowers. The system design was complicated by foundation walls supporting each of the various sections of Building 100 and by special requirements due to the sensitive nature of the tenant's manufacturing activities and the heightened need for security. This paper addresses significant aspects of the design and construction of a VI mitigation system beneath a large, occupied industrial production facility, including technical, logistical, and environmental challenges; community relations; and regulatory relations. (authors)
[en] This paper describes the development and application of a multi-channel monitoring system for recording, processing, and analyzing volatile organic compound (VOC) levels discharged to the atmosphere from a walk-in hood in a hazardous waste management facility. The monitoring system consists of an array of PID (photo ionization detector) sensors and a networked control program that provides operational schematic diagram, performs data analyses, and illustrates real-time graphical displays. Furthermore, the system records potential worker exposures, exhaust filtration efficiency and environmental release levels. Multi-channel continuous monitoring of VOCs is successfully implemented during chemical bulking operations. It is shown that a real-time monitoring system is effective for early warning detection of hazardous chemicals and for predicting the performance of adsorption filters used for VOC removal. In addition, a connected local weather visualization system supports efforts to minimize potential health and environmental impacts of VOC emissions to surrounding areas
[en] In this paper, a ZnO nanorod array has been introduced as a coating to the headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HSSPME) field. The coating shows good extraction capability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by use of BTEX as a standard and can be considered suitable for sampling trace and small molecular VOC targets. In comparison with the randomly oriented ZnO nanorod HSSPME coating, ZnO nanorod array HSSPME fiber coating shows better extraction capability, which is attributed to the nanorod array structure of the coating. Also, this novel nanorod array coating shows good extraction selectivity to 1-propanethiol.
[en] The use of gold nanoparticles coated with an organic monolayer of thiol for application in chemiresistive sensors was initiated in the late 1990s; since then, such types of sensors have been widely pursued due to their high sensitivities and reversible responses to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, a major issue for chemical sensors based on thiol-capped gold nanoparticles is their poor long-term stability as a result of slow degradation of the monothiol-to-gold bonds. We have devised a strategy to overcome this limitation by synthesizing a more robust system using Au nanoparticles capped by trithiol ligands. Compared to its monothiol counterpart, the new system is significantly more stable and also shows improved sensitivity towards different types of polar or non-polar VOCs. Thus, the trithiol-Au nanosensor shows great promise for use in real world applications.
[en] Highlights: → We review the current status of catalytic and non-catalytic VOC abatement based on a vast number of research papers. → The underlying mechanisms of plasma-catalysis for VOC abatement are discussed. → Critical process parameters that determine the influent are discussed and compared. - Abstract: This paper reviews recent achievements and the current status of non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology for the abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Many reactor configurations have been developed to generate a NTP at atmospheric pressure. Therefore in this review article, the principles of generating NTPs are outlined. Further on, this paper is divided in two equally important parts: plasma-alone and plasma-catalytic systems. Combination of NTP with heterogeneous catalysis has attracted increased attention in order to overcome the weaknesses of plasma-alone systems. An overview is given of the present understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-catalytic processes. In both parts (plasma-alone systems and plasma-catalysis), literature on the abatement of VOCs is reviewed in close detail. Special attention is given to the influence of critical process parameters on the removal process.