Results 1 - 10 of 244
Results 1 - 10 of 244. Search took: 0.025 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] For safe disposal of age-old legacy and unused chemicals in BARC, Trombay, oil-fired chemical incinerator with a capacity of 20 kg h"-"1 for solid and liquid chemical is installed adjacent to trash incinerator near RSMS, Gamma Field. The Incinerator was supplied by M/s B. L. Engineering Works, Ahmedabad. Commission of the same at Trombay site was carried out, under the supervision of Civil Engineering (CED), Technical Services Division (TSD) and Analytical Chemistry Division (custodian of the facility)
[en] The issue of implementation of the plasma incineration technology for solid radwaste treatment at NPPs, in particular, the operation of the Pluton facility, developed by the NPO Radon, is discussed. Disadvantages of the cold and hot methods of solid radwaste treatment and advantages of plasma radwaste treatment technology are shown
[ru]Обсуждены проблемы внедрения на АЭС процесса плазменной переработки твердых радиоактивных отходов (РАО), в частности вопросы эксплуатации разработанной в НПО Радон установки Плутон. Описаны недостатки холодных и горячих методов переработки твердых отходов и преимущества плазменной технологии переработки РАО
[en] According to the development of French radioactive waste incineration technology, the paper introduces excess air incineration technology and IRIS, Cold Crucible Melter Vitrification technology in detail, at the same time, it also refers to the process improvement of Valduc's alpha waste incinerator, which provides some suggestions for us to develop a new incineration technology. (authors)
[en] Process waste containing alpha activity more than 4000 Bq/g cannot be managed by shallow land burial. Over 99% of this waste has surface dose < 200 mR/h. Techniques have been developed and a demonstration facility commissioned for volume reduction by treating the process waste to concentrate maximum possible amount of plutonium in small volume and to make the bulk volume suitable for burial. Decommissioning and disposal of some obsolete equipment with glove box is also under taken. (author)
[en] Highlights: ► We calculated hazardous medical waste generation rates (HMWGR) from 132 hospitals. ► Based on a 22-month study period, HMWGR were highly skewed to the right. ► The HMWGR varied from 0.00124 to 0.718 kg bed−1 d−1. ► A positive correlation existed between the HMWGR and the number of hospital beds. ► We used non-parametric statistics to compare rates among hospital categories. - Abstract: Goal of this work was to calculate the hazardous medical waste unit generation rates (HMWUGR), in kg bed−1 d−1, using data from 132 health-care facilities in Greece. The calculations were based on the weights of the hazardous medical wastes that were regularly transferred to the sole medical waste incinerator in Athens over a 22-month period during years 2009 and 2010. The 132 health-care facilities were grouped into public and private ones, and, also, into seven sub-categories, namely: birth, cancer treatment, general, military, pediatric, psychiatric and university hospitals. Results showed that there is a large variability in the HMWUGR, even among hospitals of the same category. Average total HMWUGR varied from 0.012 kg bed−1 d−1, for the public psychiatric hospitals, to up to 0.72 kg bed−1 d−1, for the public university hospitals. Within the private hospitals, average HMWUGR ranged from 0.0012 kg bed−1 d−1, for the psychiatric clinics, to up to 0.49 kg bed−1 d−1, for the birth clinics. Based on non-parametric statistics, HMWUGR were statistically similar for the birth and general hospitals, in both the public and private sector. The private birth and general hospitals generated statistically more wastes compared to the corresponding public hospitals. The infectious/toxic and toxic medical wastes appear to be 10% and 50% of the total hazardous medical wastes generated by the public cancer treatment and university hospitals, respectively.
[en] Emission characteristic of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from 12 medical waste incinerators (MWIs) which have a total yearly capacity of 523 440 ton medical waste and accounted for 8.1% of total yearly capacity of 246 MWIs in China were studied. The congeners profile, emissions and toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ) indicators of PCDD/Fs in stack gas from two groups of MWIs were researched, and the possible formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs from MWIs were preliminarily discussed. The results of present study were summarized as follows. (1) The total concentrations and TEQ of PCDD/Fs in stack gas from MWIs were 0.516–122.803 ng Nm−3 and 0.031–3.463 ng I-TEQ Nm−3, respectively. (2) 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-H7CDF, O8CDD, O8CDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-H7CDD were the indicatory PCDD/Fs of MWI source, which could be used to apportion the sources of PCDD/Fs in environmental medium in China. (3) The emission factors of PCDD/Fs from MWIs ranged from 32.7 to 4900.0 ng I-TEQ ton−1 with a mean of 1923.6 ng I-TEQ ton−1. (4) The gas emissions of PCDD/Fs from researched 12 MWIs and all of MWIs in China in 2016 were 37.742 and 465.951 mg I-TEQ year−1, respectively. (5) 1,2,3,7,8,9-H6CDF and 1,2,3,4,7,8-H6CDF were effective TEQ indicators for the real-time monitoring of the PCDD/Fs emission. (6) The congeners profile and factor composition of PCDD/Fs in stack gas from two groups of MWIs were researched based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, and the possible formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs from MWIs were preliminarily discussed. - Highlights: • National information about PCDD/Fs emission from MWIs in China were provided. • TEQ of PCDD/Fs in stack gas ranged from 0.031 to 3.463 ng I-TEQ Nm-3. • The indicatory PCDD/Fs of MWI source in China were determined. • The gas emissions of PCDD/Fs from 12 MWIs and all of MWIs in China were studied. • 1,2,3,7,8,9-H6CDF and 1,2,3,4,7,8-H6CDF were effective TEQ indicators. - Present study was the first attempt to provide national information about emission characteristic of PCDD/Fs from MWIs in recent years, China.
[en] Highlights: • Assessment of infectious waste management in Bangkok, in particular incineration. • Integration of social network and stakeholder analysis assessment methods. • Assessment of stakeholder characteristics, role, interaction and communication. • Interviewees self-evaluate their own characteristics and the system. • Non-technical aspects are important for system acceptability, and sustainability. - Abstract: Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a solid waste management scheme requires an accurate analysis and integration of several determining features. In addition to the technical aspects, any such system shows a complex interaction of actors with varying stakes, decision-making power and influence, as well as a favourable or disabling environment. When capitalizing on the knowledge and experience from a specific case, it is also crucial that experts do not “forget” or underestimate the importance of such social determinants and that they are familiar with the methods and tools to assess them. Social network analysis (SNA) and stakeholder analysis (SA) methods can be successfully applied to better understand actors’ role and actions, analyse driving forces and existing coordination among stakeholders, as well as identify bottlenecks in communication which affect daily operations or strategic planning for the future way forward. SNA and SA, appropriately adjusted for a certain system, can provide a useful integration to methods by assessing other aspects to ensure a comprehensive picture of the situation. This paper describes how to integrate SNA and SA in order to survey a solid waste management system. This paper presents the results of an analysis of On-Nuch infectious waste incinerator in Bangkok, Thailand. Stakeholders were interviewed and asked to prioritize characteristics and relationships which they consider particularly important for system development and success of the scheme. In such a way, a large quantity of information about organization, communication between stakeholders and their perception about operation, environmental and health impact, and potential alternatives for the system was collected in a systematic way. The survey results suggest that stakeholders are generally satisfied with the system operation, though communication should be improved. Moreover, stakeholders should be strategically more involved in system development planning, according to their characteristics, to prevent negative reactions
[en] Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China. At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg/h, the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300 deg. C. Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent, I-TEQ), well below 0.5 ngTEQ/Nm3 (toxic equivalent, TEQ), while those in the melted product (slag) were 0.00035 ng/g I-TEQ. Molten slag from the furnace showed excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals. These results prove that the plasma furnace is effective for the detoxification and stabilization of MSWI fly ash. (plasma technology)
[en] At CRNL the daily collection of 1200 pounds of active combustible waste is burned in a refractory lined multi-chamber incinerator. Capacity is 500-550 pounds per hour; volume reduction 96%. Combustion gases are cooled by air dilution and decontaminated by filtration through glass bags in a baghouse dust collector. This report includes a description of the incinerator plant, its operation, construction and operating costs, and recommendations for future designs. (author)
[en] The 232-Z Plutonium Incinerator Facility was a small, highly alpha-contaminated, building situated between three active buildings located in an operating nuclear complex. Approximately 500 personnel worked within 250 meters (800 ft) of the structure and expectations were that the project would neither impact plant operations nor result in any restrictions when demolition was complete. Precision demolition and tight controls best describe the project. The team used standard open-air demolition techniques to take the facility to slab-on-grade. Several techniques were key to controlling contamination and confining it to the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition began; using misting systems, frequently applying fixatives, and using a methodical demolition sequence and debris load-out process. Detailed air modeling was done before demolition to determine necessary facility source-term levels, establish radiological boundaries, and confirm the adequacy of the proposed demolition approach. By only removing the major source term in equipment, HEPA filters, gloveboxes, and the like, and leaving fixed contamination on the walls, ceilings and floors, the project showed considerable savings and reduced worker hazards and exposure. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without the spread of contamination provides confidence that similar operations can be performed successfully. By removing the major source terms, fixing the remaining contamination in the building, and using controlled demolition and contamination control techniques, similar structures can be demolished cost effectively and safely