Results 1 - 10 of 470
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[en] The results of the 5-year exploitation of a solar heat plant (firm Doma, Austria) in the educational-laboratory building of the International Sakharov environmental univ. were made. The basic results of the technical-economic appraisal of the solar heat plants effectiveness under the conditions of the Republic of Belarus were made. (Authors)
[en] The main object of this paper is the documentation and study of the main factors behind the spectacular diffusion of solar energy use for domestic hot water production in Greece. The time pattern of the diffusion of flat-plate solar collectors since its 'out of the blue' first appearance in 1974, shows that the diffusion rate grew exponentially at first, with the annual sales figure reaching 91,000 m2 by 1980. A rate slow down in the early 1980s was followed by a brief period of explosive growth, with the annual sales figure reaching its peak value of more than 185,000 m2 in mid-1980s. A rapid decline of the growth rate down to the present annual sales level followed. The installed solar collectors pattern has the characteristic form of an S-shape curve, representing the overall penetration of the flat-plate solar collector use for domestic hot water production in the Greek economy and society. This evolution has gone through an inflection point around 1987, i.e. at a time when about 1,000,000 m2 of collectors had already been installed. By the year 2000, about 2,070,000 m2 of collectors had been installed, with a tendency to level off by 2010, unless some the present conditions determining this phenomenon change. (author)
[en] The long-term performance of various systems was determined and the economic aspects of solar hot water production were investigated in this work. The effect of the collector inclination angle, collector area and storage volume was examined for all systems, and various climatic conditions and their payback period was calculated. It was found that the collector inclination angle does not have a significant effect on system performance. Large collector areas have a diminishing effect on the system's overall efficiency. The increase in storage volume has a detrimental effect for small daily load volumes, but a beneficial one when there is a large daily consumption. Solar energy was found to be truly competitive when the conventional fuel being substituted is electricity, and it should not replace diesel oil on pure economic grounds. Large daily load volumes and large collector areas are in general associated with shorter payback periods. Overall, the systems are oversized and are economically suitable for large daily hot water load volumes. (Author)
[en] This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users
[en] A study was conducted in which 17 conventional and solar-based domestic hot water (DHW) systems were simulated using the TRYNSYS simulation model, and their results were compared. According to Natural Resources Canada, DHW heating currently accounts for 25 per cent of Canadian residential energy consumption and 25 per cent of Canadian residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate the fuel consumption of DHW systems, their GHG emissions and 30-year life cycle costs. Another aspect of the study was to model and analyze the effect of time of use (TOU) electricity pricing which was developed by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) to provide stable and predictable electricity pricing. TOU electricity pricing also promotes energy conservation. In addition, the TOU electricity price charged per kilowatt-hour changes throughout the day to reflect the changes in cost to produce electricity at different times of the day. The Ontario government plans to equip all homes and businesses with smart meters using TOU pricing by 2010. Therefore, this study also investigated the effects of the TOU feature by optimizing its use in the effort to reduce overall energy costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results revealed that a DHW system with solar pre-heat and electrical back-up is the best system for energy conservation and GHG reduction. The best system in terms of 30-year life cycle cost is a high efficiency DHW system with an on demand modulating gas combo boiler with gray water heat recovery. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs
[en] This paper reviews the market potential for solar thermal systems in Malaysia. Our study indicates that solar thermal systems such as solar drying, solar water heating and process heating have a good potential for commercialization. The primary obstacle facing the utilization of these technologies is the financial aspects. (author)
[en] Subsidies for the use of solar boilers in the Netherlands are very popular, both from local funds and national funds. A third tender for large-scale solar boiler projects in existing houses has been issued. A brief overview is given of local activities in some Dutch municipalities to stimulate the use of solar boilers
[en] The solar market in the Netherlands is growing bigger and more professional. Solar systems are now completely or almost viable. Solar systems are widely used: residential commercial, agricultural and industrial, foreign companies have more and more influence on the supply of products and plant types. And the contribution of roofers is more explicit. The Solar Energy Handbook supports these developments.
[nl]De zonnewarmtemarkt in Nederland wordt groter en steeds professioneler. Het Masterplan Zonne-energie anticipeert hierop met een tienjarenplan, met als onderdelen: een nieuw 'Handboek Zonne-energie', opleidingen en kwaliteitsborging. Zonneboilersystemen zijn nu al helemaal of bijna economisch rendabe. Kostenneutraal verduurzamen van de warmwatervoorziening is dus mogelijk. Zonneboilersystemen worden breed toegepast: in en rond de woningbouw, utiliteit, agrarische sector en industrie. Onze markt krijgt steeds meer te maken met buitenlandse invloeden bij het aanbod van producten en installatietypen. Ook wordt de inbreng van dakwerkers steeds explicieter. Het 'Handboek Zonne-energie' ondersteunt deze ontwikkelingen.
[en] This report shows the development of the market for solar boilers over the last years. Since the top of sales was reached in 2002 with 10,000 solar boilers sold annually, the market has dropped back to nearly 6,000 solar boilers in 2006. The report provides more information on the market, the parties that are active and the bottlenecks that hinder further growth of the market. [mk]
[nl]Het rapport laat zien hoe de markt voor zonneboilers zich in de laatste jaren heeft ontwikkeld. Sinds de top van de afzet met 10.000 zonneboilers per jaar in 2002, is de markt langzaam teruggezakt naar bijna 6000 stuks per jaar in 2006. Het rapport geeft meer informatie over de markt, de partijen die actief zijn en de knelpunten die er zijn voor verdere groei van de markt