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[en] There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or μg/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in trace concentrations. Most of the ailments, including mood disturbances and psychological disorders, are reportedly on the increase in most urban and industrialized areas of Nigeria. Perhaps a study should be conducted among the population in order to relate the pattern of water pollution related diseases to health factors in Nigeria
[en] The LIFE ALCHEMIA project (LIFE16 ENV/ES/000437) faces one of the current challenges in the treatment of water for human consumption, such as the presence of natural radioactivity. Currently, there is a considerable lack of knowledge on the part of the actors involved in water management and it can be stated that, despite the legislation in force (Directive 2013/51/Euratom and Royal Decree 140/2003), radioactivity is not a parameter that is being systematically monitored at European level.
[en] In the northwest region of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain), water supply comes mainly from volcanic galleries and aquifers. These water resources have high concentrations of dissolved salts due to volcanic singularities and the intensive groundwater exploitation (Custodio et al., 2016). In the particular case of Hoya del Cedro gallery, located at 1,365 meters above sea level in the municipality of Icod de los Vinos, fluoride content is especially significant, with concentrations higher than 10 mg F - /L.
[en] The increasing demand for good quality water to meet human consumption and economic development needs led to a request to initiate a TC project aimed at evaluating the potential of La Digue aquifer
[en] Among environmental management actions, water management should be based on the guarantee of its availability and quality, its efficient management, the enhancement of regeneration and reuse formulas, in the creation of new resources, in the modernization of water networks, and in the incorporation of new technologies into productive processes. Targets should be set to promote savings and improve efficiency in water use, and technology transfer to the pipeline sector and the use of alternative water resources is necessary,- In short, sustainable and environmentally friendly water networks must be built.
[en] The Chair Catedra FACSA de Innovacion en el Ciclo Integral del Agua de la Universitat Jaume I is an association between a private company, FACSA, and a university, Universitat Jaume I (UJI). The Chair promotes research, innovation and exchange of knowledge in the full water cycle. It was born in 2015 as a link between research groups, teachers and students of the UJI and the different fields of study related to the full water cycle and has tried to guide and support their study and knowledge among the university community. Therefore, the first grants were convoked three years ago and different Degrees, Masters and PhD thesis have been awarded during three editions. Moreover, different courses have been organized focussing on catchment and treatment of drinking water, treatment of wastewater and construction of waste water treatment plants.
[en] In a qualitative analysis of water collected from different rivers of Azerbaijan, 29 water samples were analyzed to assess water quality and suitability for domestic, livestock and irrigation usage. The pH of the river water varied within 7.79-9.34. Electrical conductivity of all collected water samples were within the range of 279-2738 μS/cm indicating low to high salinity. Total dissolved solids ranged from 166-4047 mg/L. The anion chemistry indicated in water samples was dominated by HCO3-, Cl- and SO42-, respectively. The cation chemistry indicated that among 29 water samples, 16 showed dominance sequence as Ca>Na>Mg>K, 5 samples as Na>Ca>Mg>K, 6 samples as Ca>Na>K>Mg and 2 samples as Na>K>Ca>Mg. The quality assessment showed relatively high values of EC, TDS, HCO3-, Cl- and SO42-, in the number of water samples, which would make them unsafe for drinking, livestock and irrigation purposes.
[en] Chichoj lagoon has lost 71.6 ha in last 45 years, equivalent to 65% of its area on 1946. At the present, lagoon shows a great invasion of vegetation, with a trend to disappear if this process continues. Physicochemical data evaluation indicated an evident lymnological stress over lagoon due to minimal natural and significant anthropogenic contributions. Temperature was defined by physical factors as sunlight irradiation periods and caloric exchange with wind, promoting the mixing of its water between december and january. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were typical of euthrophic lakes, with over saturation in surface waters an anoxia below few meters depth describing a non-dependent temperature trend. The main affluent river contributions were oxygen-d efficient. pH behavior was related with dissolved oxygen, due to narrow relation between acidity and redox mechanisms in euthrophic waters. Lagoon and affluent river conductivities showed ionic materials contributions from basin (due to its variation with climatic changes), anthropogenic contributions (observed in affluent river) and metabolic activity from sediments speeded up in last portion of lagoon, draining great amounts of ionic substances through effluent river. Redox potentials indicated the trend of reductive process instead of oxidative ones in the affluent river and below 7 m depth in lagoon. Surface and Profile data evaluation suggested the presence of a point-source of contaminants and nutrients, and evidenced the metabolic activity produced over them in lagoon, expressed as a visual euthrophic condition. Next paper will describe nutrients and other water quality parameters behaviors and their interrelation with the physicochemical parameters described in this paper. 1 map, 5 tabs.(Author)