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[en] At the south of the Iberian Peninsula droughts have been increasing during the last years having an impact on daily life people, decreasing the economic activity of the area avoiding their development and growth. As a result, different technologies have appeared during the last years in order to solve that deficit. One of these methods is called desalination. When the conventional resources do not supply enough quantity or quality the use of desalination makes sense. Therefore, the desalination technology is in a mature stage and in many places the only source to obtain water.
[en] By 2020, it is expected that more than 3.5 billion of people might live in regions with hydric stress , that is, regions where the Available https://www.ywp-spain.es/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/YWP-Conference-2019-Book-of-Abstracts.pdf water cannot fulfil the demand required for basic domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes.
[en] Our modern, globalised world presents us an uneven picture regarding access to and efficient use of water. Even as the global trend towards water scarcity is shared by both hemispheres alike, the rich west remains fundamentally well supplied, its access to clean water all but guaranteed.
[en] Water intended for human consumption must be potable and comply with the quality requirements set out in RD 140/2003  and in the Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the quality of water intended for human consumption . Among its characteristics, it must comply with the fact that it is colourless, odourless and insipid, as well as free of pathogens susceptible to causing illnesses to the final consumer. It has been determined that geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-mib) are the compounds responsible for the presence of earthy flavour and aroma in water, which reduce the organoleptic quality
[en] The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) predicted two-thirds of the world’s population may face water shortage by 2025. The absence of a good sanitation is also a problem for 2.4 billion people. All of this has led to an intense investigation by scientists in more efficient technologies for wastewater (WW) treatment (Ortega-Gómez et al., 2014).
[en] Understanding the factors that determine the use of rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS) can help the correct implementation and sustainability of the system, especially in regions where this option becomes the most (and often only) feasible solution.
[en] Preconditioning World as people’s lifestyle is changing. Everything moves faster, information, work, business results, the learning curve etc. In this changing environment, we might question ourselves, How? Why? When? To have a good understanding of what’s going on, we must start by analysing the companies and their lifespan compared to past years.
[en] As water crises become severe, the desire to explore alternative strategies that focus on the demand-side of water-conservation increase. Changing behaviour through persuasion (message framing) can be an integral part of providing water demand solutions. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of messages related to household water use on water scarcity and intentions to act. We tested whether relationships between communication and water conservation were mediated via increasing capability, opportunity, and motivation behaviour (COM-B dimensions). We applied two message types related to concern about severe water scarcity and conservation strategies to the behaviour change conditions in two combinations: (1) severe water scarcity and water-saving tips/strategies, and (2) severe water scarcity and no water-saving tips/strategies. There was broad support for the hypothesis that COM-B dimensions would mediate the effect of message type on water scarcity concern and intentions to act in conservation activities. Households that received the message framed in terms of water-saving tips/strategies expressed greater water scarcity concern and higher intention to act than those that received the no water-saving tips/strategies message. Mediation analyses showed that the message framed in terms of specific water-saving tips/strategies was mediated by increasing households’ capacity (self-efficacy), opportunity and/or motivation in water-conservation actions. Thus, specific water-conservation strategies made available to households have a stronger impact on water-conservation behaviour because these messages appeal to behavioural change conditions.
[en] In this study, the relationship between leaf pigment concentration (analyzed in the laboratory) and four spectral indexes (measured in the field) was investigated. For this purpose, field experiments consisting of six different irrigation treatments were conducted with dwarf green beans during 2005 growing season. Based on spectral data, spectral indexes were plotted against pigment concentration. Results showed that under water stress, the chlorophyll and carotene contents of green bean leaves rose. According to linear regression analysis between spectral indexes and pigment contents, the Normalized Difference Pigment Chlorophyll Index (NPCI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) had the highest correlations with the chlorophyll (a, b and total), and carotene content of leaves. (author)