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[en] In the ranking of the first ten global risks in terms of impact analyzed by the Global Risks Report 2015 of the World Economic Forum, the 'crisis of water' is in the first place as intensity of impact: this is understandable because of the water depend not only a large part of life on Earth, but also many of economic activities. For this reason it is essential to protect it and use it in a way that is ever more efficient and sustainable. ENEA is promoting, together with other European research institutions, a model of integration between the treated wastewater urban and agricultural world that allows, on the one hand to make them reusable in agriculture for plant growth that will be used for food and non-food production, forage and agricultural uses, on the other hand to place an "ecosystem service", i.e. an additional water finishing before it is released into the environment or used for natural groundwater recharge.
[it]Nella classifica dei primi dieci rischi globali in termini di impatto analizzati dal Global Risks Report 2015 del World Economic Forum, la “crisi dell’acqua” è al primo posto come intensità di impatto: ciò è comprensibile in quanto dall’acqua dipendono non solo gran parte della vita sulla Terra, ma anche molte delle attività economiche. Per questo motivo è indispensabile tutelarla e utilizzarla in modo sempre più efficiente e sostenibile. l’ENEA sta promuovendo, insieme ad altri enti di ricerca europei, un modello di integrazione tra le acque reflue trattate di origine urbana e il mondo dell’agricoltura che permetta, da un lato di renderle riutilizzabili in agricoltura per la crescita delle piante che serviranno per produzioni food e non-food, foraggi e usi agricoli vari, dall’altro di effettuare un “servizio ecosistemico”, cioè un ulteriore finissaggio dell’acqua, prima che questa venga rilasciata in ambiente o utilizzata per la ricarica naturale delle falde.
[en] The reuse of industrial wastewater is a powerful tool that can help to reduce water supply costs, as well as reduce the pressure of water resources and the water footprint. Industrial activity generates complex wastewater and so the choice for specific treatment depends on the water quality required for the reuse application. Conventional biological processes are the most common and preferred technology for wastewater treatment, mainly due to its low operating costs. Parameters such as pH, dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, volatile or total suspended solids have been traditionally used to evaluate the quality of these effluents. Nevertheless, accumulation of persistent compounds such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, etc., is detected in the sludge generated during bio-treatment of these wastewaters. A specific methodology for identification and quantification of such accumulation has been developed by the application of advanced analytical methods based on sample extraction steps as SPE or QuEChERS followed by liquid chromatography coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, and focusing in the aqueous residue coming from industry, the case study of cork boiling wastewater has been selected due to its highly recalcitrance to conventional biological processes due to its high toxicity and low biodegradability. The design of any advanced biological system focused on adaptation of microorganisms to this kind of complex industrial wastewater containing unknown biorecalcitrant pollutants must be the future tendency on water reuse. To accomplish this goal, specific advanced techniques are necessary for the a ccurate evaluation of the changes in the microbial population and their effect through the biological adaptation process. Optical microscopy and culture-based studies helps to identify the predominant microbial populations. Advanced techniques such as Quantitative real Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) or the development of novel genetic techniques based in genomic sequencing permits the study and identification of a wide diversity of microbial species. It will give highly useful information for the proper design of advanced biological reactors and a precise perspective of their possible limitations in the frame of decontamination and nutrients elimination. For those particular cases in which the adaptation of a biological system is not recommended, the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as photo-Fenton or Ozone, have been demonstrated to be successful alternatives for the efficient removal of organic pollutants, and reusing purposes. However, the use of any AOPs can promote the formation of unknown by-products that, in some cases can be more toxic, persistent and could remain after the AOP. The use of HPLC-high resolutions mass spectrometry followed by a non-target screening analysis can be an effective strategy for the analysis of unknown compounds in complex mixtures. The combination with Omics approaches using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helps to reduce the vast amount of information comparing different steps of the treatment line and proposing specific compounds generated during each procedure.
[en] YWP Spanish Chapter was launched in 2016 in the 13th IWA Leading Edge Conference on Water and Wastewater Technologies celebrated in Jerez de la Frontera (Spain). The first Steering Committee of the Spanish chapter, under the presidency of Marina Arnaldos Orts, began to develop an intense activity, converting it as a reference in the Spanish water sector. The first IWA YWP Spain Conference hosted in Bilbao (2017) was a turning point in the developing of the chapter, with a clear increase in the number of members, and the recognition of the activities of the chapter in the form of iAgua award to the best Association of 2017. Currently, YWP Spanish chapter is composed by more than 300 water lovers, and the ambitious of its members no have limits. The ambition of the four-day IWA YWP Spain 2019 meeting is to report on the most advanced research progresses in the water sector mainly for the next young water leaders, and to empower them for the future research and challenges. The structuring of the congress around 4 main themes (Water economy and governance; Water 4.0., Water cycle and Emerging technologies) will allow to have a broad vision of the problems of the water sector.
[en] In this work are discussed the results of a survey concerning the most common chemicals used in Italy for water potabilisation. For some of them the regulation proposed by UNICHIM in given and the main impurities are indicated. The results of a test, concerning the stability of a commercial solution of sodium hypochlorite stored in different conditions, are shown
[en] This paper presents a decision support methodology for integrated water management in the institutional sector, based on the application of three multiobjective analysis methods: ELECTRE III, Schedule Commitments and Weighted Averages. The methodology considers environmental, economic, social, technical and technological objectives, and integrates structure preferences of different and simultaneous decision makers. It takes place in six major stages: diagnosis of water management; strategy formulation and management goals; identification and preparation of alternatives; establishment of evaluation criteria; application of the multi-objective analysis method; and identifying the best qualified alternatives. This methodology was applied to the core El Volador of the National University of Colombia (city of Medellin) and seven alternatives were evaluated. Results show that, according to the specific characteristics of the institution, the modernization of the water network and plumbing systems, as well as the use of groundwater, satisfy the preferences of decision makers, whereas treatment and reuse of wastewater was the less favorable alternative.
[en] Waterborne parasitic protozoan infections have a worldwide distribution and are, in both developed and developing countries, a source for epidemic and endemic human diseases. In some European countries, agricultural water consumption may represent up to 80% of the total water use. Current guidelines for the microbiological quality of water used to irrigate are based on the presence of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli. It remains unclear how these indexes correlate with the presence of specific human pathogens. The transmission of parasites and the role of emergent and new pathogens are not fully understood. Therefore, the development of new and rapid approaches is necessary to evaluate the role that irrigation water could have in the transmission of existing, new and emerging pathogens to the human population. This study focused on using 18S rRNA amplicon-based next generation sequencing and qPCR to facilitate waterborne protozoan parasites (WPP) detection and identification in water samples from wastewater treatment plant effluents used for irrigation. Thirteen wastewater samples (secondary and tertiary effluents) were collected. DNA was extracted using FastDNA Spin kit for soil (homogenization using the FastPrep-24® Instrument at speed setting 6.5,120 s) following the manufacturer’s instructions. PCR was performed as described by Illumina guide. The amplicon sequencing protocol targets the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene with the primers designed surrounding conserved regions. DNA sequencing data was processed using QIIME™ 1.8.0 open – source bioinformatics pipeline (http:// qiime.org). Real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Blastocystis, Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba and Toxoplasma were performed with the Light-Cycler 2.0 PCR system. Pathogenic protozoa identified by 18S rRNA sequencing and qPCR in the analyzed samples of water included: wastewater treatment secondary effluent (Blastocystis, Acanthamoeba, Entamoeba, Giardia duodenalis genotype A) and tertiary effluent (Blastocystis, Acanthamoeba, Entamoeba, Giardia duodenalis genotype A). Entamoeba histolytica sequences were also identified among the OTUs obtained from all analyzed water samples. Recently, E. histolytica has been reclassified into different species, E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, being the two latter species non-pathogenic. Blastocystis sp. was the most represented protozoa among the sequences retrieved from the 18S rRNA gene. The species E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii cannot be differentiated by microscopic traditional methods, but this metagenomic analysis is able to differentiate between these species in wastewater and lagooning samples. This fact is very important, since pathogenic and non-pathogenic Entamoeba species could be distinguished.
[en] Reuse of treated wastewater still comes up against resistance as different users are not aware of the potential of this water, the benefits of recovering nutrients for agriculture. To address this issue, the CREA-UCLM is contributing to promote the reuse of treated wastewater through the Work Package 3: Irrigation and agronomic practices on MeProWaRe Project “Novel Methodology for the Promotion of Treated Wastewater Reuse for Mediterranean Crops Improvement”. It is an ERANET/JPI Water call “Waterworks 2014” The main goals of UCLM activities were to evaluate the applicability of treated wastewater for olive trees and grapevines, and to assess the effects of the continuous use of such treated water on soil and crops. Initial contacts were made with the owners of the vineyards and olive groves plots irrigated with the treated wastewater and conventional well water, suitable for use as control, in different localities of the South-East of Spain and plots were pre-selected in summer 2016. Hence, the field trial is being carried out in six plots distributed in the province of Albacete (SE Spain) as follows: • Vineyards: two treated wastewater-irrigated plots and one control plot. Trellis system and drip irrigation. • Olive groves: two treated wastewater-irrigated plots and one control plot. A drip irrigation system. Since January 2017, the selected plots were monthly sampled. Physical, chemical, toxicological and microbiological parameters are being tested in irrigation water, soil and plants (foliar nutrient content).Preliminary results showed that all used water (included that of control) presented low sodium content and high conductivity. According to secondary quality indexes (SAR, RSC, French degrees of hardness or Scott Index), treated wastewater for irrigation reaches an acceptable level of quality although tends to be hard or very hard. No organic compounds (PAHs, PCBs) and metal problems have been found, but microbiological risks exist in the case of E. coli or Salmonella sp. Soils in the tested area are mainly loose-textured or loose-textured to sandy, with a moderate clay content, pH basic or very basic, low organic matter content and high or very high carbonate content. No toxic problems have been found and E.coli has not been detected. Preliminary results on foliar content suggest that irrigation with treated wastewater does not suppose nutritional imbalances for the plant. Despite the fact that real knowledge about water characteristics is lacking, farmers who have been using such water for years are not afraid of using it. In this sense, MeProWaRe will serve to clarify at the stakeholder level the most outstanding aspects of using wastewater in crops. Good management of the use of wastewater is essential within a framework of circular economy and water scarcity derived from climate change.
[en] The protection and efficient utilization of our drinking water resources gain more and more in importance. The book shows practical ways how water for the consumer, e.g. in the house, can be used more efficiently for example through water saving fittings and toilet flushing systems, through double water networks, use of rain water or gray water recycling. With this, the authors not only provide practical fundamentals and design instructions of the single technologies but they also give a report on operating experiences and new formulations for solution, on results of current investigations as well as on municipal and national strategies for action. (orig./BBR)
[de]Der Schutz und die sparsame Nutzung unserer Trinkwasservorraete gewinnen zunehmend an Bedeutung. Das Buch zeigt praktische Wege, wie Wasser beim Verbraucher, d.h. im Haus, sinnvoller genutzt werden kann, z.B. durch wassersparende Armaturen und Toilettenspuelsysteme, durch doppelte Wassernetze, Regenwassernutzung oder Grauwasserrecycling. Dabei vermitteln die Autoren nicht nur praxisorientierte Grundlagen und Planungshinweise zu den einzelnen Techniken, sondern berichten auch ueber Betriebserfahrungen und neue Loesungsansaetze, ueber Ergebnisse aktueller Untersuchungen sowie ueber kommunal- und landespolitische Handlungsstrategien. (orig./BBR)
[en] Summary: This study was conducted to investigate the arsenic removal efficiency of different adsorptive media from water. Different naturally occurring materials such as bauxite, plastic clay, plaster of Paris, lime, alum, and alumina etc. were used for the development of media to remove arsenic As/sup +5/ present in the artificially contaminated water. Different ratios of the selected materials were combined and ignited at 9000 C to enhance its arsenic removing efficiency. It was found that the media bauxite, plastic clay, lime (1:1:1) has a maximum removal (99%) of As +5 species from aqueous media and can be used on- site to reduce the arsenic contamination of potable water. Furthermore, the materials used in this experiment were cheaply and abundantly available within the country. The method is very simple and economically viable, for removal of arsenic from potable water. (author)
[en] Market instruments have been often proposed with the aim of improving the efficient allocation of use rights over natural resources. This article analyzes the potential of market mechanisms in the field of water resources and focuses attention on the experience of Chile, one of the few cases in which water markets have been implemented on a wide scale. Evidence from the Chilean case is discussed in order to verify theoretical hypotheses and to outline the potential benefits but also the many drawbacks of these instruments.
[it]Gli strumenti di mercato sono stati proposti con il fine di rendere piu efficiente l'allocazione dei diritti d'uso sulle risorse naturali. Questo articolo ne indaga l'applicazione al caso delle risorse idriche, analizzando l'esperienza cilena, che rappresenta uno dei pochi casi in cui il meccanismo dei water markets e stato impiegato su vasta scala. Traendo spunto da questa esperienza e dalla ricca letteratura in materia, vengono discussi i potenziali benefici ma anche i molti aspetti problematici dell'uso di questi strumenti.