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[en] The principles of ion implantation are described. The process is distinguished from ion plating and ion nitriding. The effects of ion implantation in increasing wear resistance are discussed, with examples. The measurement of friction, and the effect of ion implantation on the coefficient of friction of a number of substances, are described. (U.K.)
[en] Thermal oxidation (TO) of a novel metastable β-titanium (Ti) alloy was carried out in air at 450, 650 and 850 °C for selected periods of time. This research aims to investigate the effect of the TO process performed at different conditions on the morphological features of the oxidized layer created over the surface of the investigated Ti–15Zr–12Nb (wt%) (TZN) alloy with more focus on its influence on some properties required for biomedical applications. The results of the surface morphological characteristics revealed the formation of the high-quality oxide layer due to precious selecting of the oxidation time and cooling rate for each temperature used. Moreover, a significant increase in surface roughness, micro-hardness and wear resistance was resulted for TZN alloy samples compared to that of the untreated sample. (paper)
[en] This patent describes a combination. It comprises: a longitudinally extending rod guide; a support for a control rod. The support being positioned within the rod guide and intended to receive and minimize scarring of the control rod; a cylindrical control rod having a convex surface and being held by a spider including vanes. The support being relatively flat and thin, and having a predetermined exterior cross-sectional configuration and including a control rod opening formed in the support and having a predetermined configuration and cross-sectional area, a channel formed in the support to receive one of the vanes and communicate with the control rod opening. The channel forming a respective pair of junctures with the control rod opening. The control rod opening including a pair of planar wear surfaces, each parallel to the axis of the control rod opening and extending laterally from the respective junctures to afford a planar-to-convex interface between the convex surface of the control rod and the planar wear surfaces of the support when the convex surface of the control rod abuts
[en] This nondestructive method allows to follow in real time wear or corrosion. The material is activated by a proton beam from a cyclotron in a thickness of 20 to 200 micrometers giving a very low activity, below 0.5 MBq, requiring no safety measure. Examples are given
[en] Sliding wear tests have been performed in room temperature air and water in order to evaluate the wear resistance of advanced Zr fuel claddings. These results were compared with those of commercial alloys such as Zircaloy-4, A and B alloys. As a result, the advanced Zr fuel claddings have a similar wear resistance compared with the commercial alloys. The dominant factor governing the wear resistance is the protruded volume of wear debris that are performed on the worn area in air condition, but the accommodation of plastic deformation on the contact area in water. In addition, the worn area size was greatly affected by tested cladding materials. With worn area data, it can be suggested that the ratio of wear volume or protruded volume to worn area (De or Dp) are used as the evaluation parameters of wear resistance
[en] A statistical characterization of defects in 35 buildings and 98 wood floorings (softwood and hardwood floors, and laminated and engineered wood floors), their diagnostic methods and repair solutions is presented. An expert system for inspecting wood flooring, comprising the classification of defects, their most probable causes, diagnostic methods and repair techniques, was used. Results include age, affected area, severity and frequency of defects and their main causes, as well as appropriate diagnostic methods, preventive and curative repair solutions most prescribed and the most significant correlations. Scratches were detected in more than five sixths of the sample, highly associated with exterior mechanical actions, and with an inadequate finishing layer. Wearing of the finishing layer was detected in a quarter of the inspected floorings. Accordingly, the application of a suitable finishing layer and, alternatively, its replacement are the most prescribed repair techniques.
[es]Se presenta una caracterización estadística de defectos en 35 edificios y 98 suelos de madera (suelos de madera conífera y frondosa, pisos de madera laminada e de ingeniería de la madera), sus métodos de diagnóstico y soluciones de reparación. Se utilizó un sistema experto para inspeccionar suelos de madera, que incluía la clasificación de defectos, sus causas más probables, métodos de diagnóstico y técnicas de reparación. Los resultados incluyen edad, área afectada, gravedad y frecuencia de los defectos y sus principales causas, así como los métodos de diagnósticos apropiados, soluciones de reparación preventiva y curativa más prescritas y las correlaciones más Significativas. Se detectaron arañazos en más de cinco sextos de la muestra, muy asociados con acciones mecánicas exteriores y con una capa de acabado inadecuada. El desgaste de la capa de acabado se detectó en un cuarto de los suelos inspeccionados. Por consiguiente, la aplicación de una capa de acabado adecuado y, en su caso, su sustitución son las técnicas de reparación más prescritas.
[en] Wear properties of TC4 and TC11 alloys were comparatively investigated under various sliding velocities on an MPX-2000 type pin-on-disc wear tester. The wear rates, morphologies and compositions of worn surfaces, morphologies and properties of tribo-layers were studied and the wear mechanisms were also explored. TC4 and TC11 alloys shared almost the same wear regularity and characteristics. Both of the two titanium alloys had the optimal wear resistance at 4 m s−1, the suboptimal at 0.75 m s−1, and the worst at 2.68 m s−1. The wear rate of TC4 alloy was always higher than that of TC11 alloy at different sliding velocities, especially at 4 m s−1. With the rising of sliding velocity, titanium alloys underwent the transitions of wear mechanisms from the combination of abrasive wear and adhesive wear at 0.75 m s−1 to delamination wear at 2.68 m s−1, then to typical oxidative- mild wear at 4 m s−1. (paper)