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[en] Constructed wetlands (CWs) are engineered systems that have been designed and constructed to utilize natural processes involving wetland soils, vegetation, and microbes to treat wastewater (Vymazal, 2018). In CWs substrates or filling material act as carriers for biofilm development, medium for plant growth and adsorbent for pollutant removal.
[en] A few studies have reported the occurrence of monoethylmercury (CH3CH2Hg+) in the natural environment, but further verification is needed due to the lack of direct evidence and/or uncertainty in analytical procedures. Various analytical techniques were employed to verify the occurrence of CH3CH2Hg+ in soil of the Florida Everglades. The identity of CH3CH2Hg+ in Everglades soil was clarified, for the first time, by GC/MS. The employment of the recently developed aqueous phenylation-purge-and-trap-GC coupled with ICPMS confirmed that the detected CH3CH2Hg+ was not a misidentification of CH3SHg+. Stable isotope-tracer experiments further indicated that the detected CH3CH2Hg+ indeed originated from Everglades soil and was not an analytical artifact. All these evidence clearly confirmed the occurrence of CH3CH2Hg+ in Everglades soil, presumably as a consequence of ethylation occurring in this wetland. The prevalence of CH3CH2Hg+ in Everglades soil suggests that ethylation could play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of Hg. - A combination of various analytical techniques and stable isotope tracer experiments confirms monoethylmercury is present in Everglades soil.
[en] The objectives of this study were to determine the biofilm microbial activity and bacterial community structure and successions in greywater treatment filters and to relate the treatment efficiency to the bacterial community parameters. This 10-month study was performed in a newly established experimental system for domestic greywater treatment that consisted of three parallel vertical flow filters (VFs) followed by a horizontal flow filter (HF). A rapid increase in the bacterial community abundance occurred during the first 85 days of filter operations, followed by a short-term decrease and the stabilization of the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers at average levels of 1.2 × 109 and 3.2 × 108 copies/g dw in VFs and HF, respectively, until the end of the experiment. The dominant bacterial phyla and genera differed between the VFs and HF. The temporal variation in the bacterial community structure was primarily related to the species replacement, and it was significantly affected by the influent organic carbon and nitrogen compounds in the VFs and the ammonia and organic carbon in the HF filters. Despite the differences in the community structure and assembly mechanisms, the temporal dynamics of the bacterial community showed high congruence between the filter types. The treatment efficiency was related to the biofilm bacterial community diversity and abundance and the abundance of certain bacterial genera in the VF filters. The results suggest that the dominant pathway of nitrogen removal by greywater treatment VFs occurs via coupled heterotrophic nitrification and denitrification, while the contribution of aerobic denitrification is temporally variable in these filters.
[en] Pimeleodendron griffithianum, locally known as Perah ikan is available in Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. The plant can be found in wet forest, secondary forest, pole forest, semi-swamps, and along logging roads or on hill slopes. In Malaysia, the stem of P. griffithianum being used as commercial timber. So far, no chemical constituents have been reported from P. griffithianum. In this study, a phytochemical study was conducted on the stem bark of P. griffithianum. The stem bark was obtained from Sungai Siput, Perak. The cleaned, chopped and dried stem-bark was extracted using acetone for several times. The separation of the components was carried out using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) followed by recrystallization method. The structure of the pure compound was elucidated by spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultraviolate - visible (UV-Vis) and comparison with literature. One compound (1) was isolated and identified as acetyl aleuritolic acid. This compound was reported for the first time from this plant. (author)