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[en] The objective of this investigation was to improve certain important characters in wheat through hybridization using irradiated and non-irradiated pollen of triticale and rye. Seeds of first and second backcross (BC1 and BC2) obtained in a previous season from hybridization between (Mizar X Saberbeg) and Saberbeg were sown under the field condition. At flowering, some spikes were backcrossed with Saberbeg or Mizar and then the BC2 and BC3 seeds were collected
[en] The objective of the studyis to investigate the effects of different drying processes(convective hot air, microwave, and fluidizedbeddrying) and combined drying methods on the drying characteristics and physical properties of the dried wheat and the powerconsumption of the dryers. The lowest moisture content and water activity values wereobserved forthe 25min of drying in fluidized bed dryer (60°C) and following 16min in microwave dryer (540W). The lowest powerconsumption was observed in the 60°C-180W fluidizedbed-microwave combination (0.77kWh)compared to the other combined trials. (Author)
[en] A Paulownia-winter wheat intercropping experiment with the object of quantifying photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and its effect on wheat yield was conducted 60 km south of Zhengzhou (35°N 113°E), Henan Province, PR China, from September 1991 to July 1992 using a tree and crop interface approach. The middle row of three 240 m long rows of 11-year-old trees was studied for its effects on the yield of irrigated and fertilized winter wheat. Photosynthetic photon flux density (Qp) was quantified using a split-plot design with four blocks. There were four distance (subplot) treatments (2.5 m, 5 m, 10 m and 20 m) and two direction (main plot) treatments laid out to the east and west of a north-south tree line. Results showed no difference in direction effects but Qp did affect total grain weight (P = 0.0047) between 2.5 m and 20 m. A regression equation was fit using the mean for each distance treatment: Y = 391.7 + 4.57X with r2 = 0.9310 indicating a yield increase of 4.57 g m−2 (45.7 kg ha−1) over a distance of 2.5 m to 20 m from the trees
[en] The objective of the study was to determine the effect of three different doses of laser radiation on the morphological features determining the yield of spring wheat. The object of the analyses were control seeds and wheat seeds treated with three doses of laser radiation. Biometric measurements of nine features were performed on plants random sampled from every plot. It was found that among the morphological features of the spring wheat cultivars under study the effect of laser radiation proved to be significant with relation to total and productive tillering, length of ear, weight of grains per ear and weight of 1000 grains. In the case of the weight of 1000 grains, significant interaction occurred between the cultivars and between the three doses of laser radiation. In the case of the very important feature of the yield structure - the weight of grains per ear, dose 2 (97.2 x 10-3 J/cm2) proved to be a factor significantly increasing the value of that parameter as compared to the control and to the other laser radiation doses. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab
[en] The development of a new olive oil based chocolate filling was carried out. In this study three different types of virgin olive oil were tested, in three different concentrations in the production of chocolate fillings. An instrumental analysis was carried out for chemical analyses, such as moisture and pH. The color analysis included the CIE 1976 L*a*b* color space and RGB color space. The rheological analysis included the evaluation of flow curve, flow index (n), consistency (K) and dynamic moduli (G’ and G’’). No influence was detected on the moisture or pH of chocolate fillings, due to the concentration or type of olive oil. However, the use of olive oil decreased consistency from 1371 Pasn to 148 - 559 Pasn , even using olive oil concentrations of 20% w/w. Also, G’ registered a similar correlation, where a decrease was observed from 4.42 x 106 Pa to values around 1.70-2.51 x 106 Pa, for 20% w/w olive oil. The fillings presented a darker yellow-green color when using olive oil produced with Galega and Cordovil de Serpa varieties, but olive oil produced with the Arbequina variety did not affect color significantly, although further studies will be required to evaluate the impact of ripening stage.
[es]Ha sido desarrollado un nuevo relleno basado en aceite de oliva. En este estudio se testaron tres tipos diferentes de aceite de oliva, en tres concentraciones diferentes en la producción de rellenos de chocolate. El análisis instrumental incluyó análisis químico, como humedad y pH. El análisis del color incluyó el espacio CIE 1976 L*a*b* y el espacio RGB. El análisis reológico incluyó la evaluación del índice de flujo (n), consistencia (K) y módulos dinámicos (G’ y G’’). Ni se detectó influencia en la humedad ni el pH de rellenos debido a la concentración o el tipo de aceite. Sin embargo, el uso de aceite de oliva disminuyó la consistencia desde 1371 Pasn a 148 - 559 Pas, incluso usando concentraciones bajas de aceite como 20% m/m. Por otra parte, también G’ presentó una correlación similar, donde se observó una disminución de 4.42 x 106 Pa para valores alrededor de 1.70-2.51 x 106 Pa, también con 20% m/m aceite. Los rellenos presentaron un color más oscuro amarillo-verde cuando se utilizó el aceite producido con las variedades Galega y Cordovil de Serpa, pero el aceite producido con la variedad Arbequina no afectó significativamente al color, no obstante, serán necesarios más estudios para evaluar el impacto de la maduración.
[en] Two field experiments were carried out to evaluate the use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer in wheat crop, using urea and ammonium sulphate 5% N-15 atom excess. The experiments were conducted at the ICTA Experimental Center 'Labor Ovalle', Quetzaltenango. In one of them, the time of the largest use efficiency by the crop was determined, for which three times of applications were evaluated: at sowing, 35 and 55 days after sowing with a total rate of 100 kg nitrogen per hectare, applying fertilizer dissolved in water. In the other experiment the application of fertilizer solid and dissolved in water was compared. The use efficiency was similar for nitrogen sources, but not for time and type of application being 35 days and fertilizer dissolved the treatments with best use efficiency
[en] The supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction technique has emerged as one of the best possible alternatives to organic solvent (hexane) extraction. However, very limited information is available on process optimization for this extraction technique and the lack of available engineering data is causing the slow growth of this technique. In the present investigation, SC-CO2 extraction was carried out to extract the oil from wheat germ under various operating conditions and the oil samples were characterized for properties such as phosphorous and tocol contents (vitamin E). A three-level Box Behnken design from response surface methodology was applied to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature and CO2 flow rate with an objective to obtain high oil yield, rich tocol contents and low phosphorous content. The process parameters were maintained between 30 to 50 MPa, 40 to 60 °C and a flow rate of 10 to 30 g·min-1 in a Box Behnken design matrix. Three different second order polynomial models were obtained for oil yield, phosphorous content and tocol contents with high R2 values. The optimum conditions were found to be 50 M Pa, 60 °C and 30 g·min-1 where the predicted oil yield, phosphorous content and tocol contents were found to be 8.87%, 31.86 mg·Kg-1 and 2059.92 mg·Kg-1 respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the experimental oil yield, phosphorous content and tocol contents obtained were found to be very close to the values predicted by the model.
[es]La técnica de extracción mediante dióxido de carbono supercrítico (SC-CO2) ha surgido como una de las mejores alternativas posibles a la extracción con solventes orgánicos (hexano). Sin embargo, se dispone de información muy limitada sobre la optimización del proceso y la falta de disponibilidad de datos de ingeniería es la causa del lento crecimiento de esta técnica. En la presente investigación, la extracción con SC-CO2 se llevó a cabo para obtener aceite de germen de trigo en diversas condiciones operacionales. Los aceites se caracterizaron mediante sus contenidos en fósforo y tocoles (vitamina E). Se aplicó el diseño Box Behnken de tres niveles a partir de la metodología de superficie de respuesta para optimizar los parámetros de la extracción, presión, temperatura y flujo de CO2 para obtener un alto rendimiento de aceite, alto contenido de tocoles y bajo contenido de fósforo. Los parámetros del proceso se mantuvieron entre 30 - 50 MPa, de 40 a 60 °C y de 10 a 30 g·min-1 de caudal de CO2 en la matriz de diseño Box Behnken. Se obtuvieron tres modelos polinomiales de segundo orden diferentes para rendimiento de aceite, contenido de fósforo y contenido de tocoles, con altos valores de R2 . Las condiciones óptimas fueron: 50 M Pa, 60 °C y 30 g·min-1 donde el rendimiento de aceite, el contenido de fósforo y el contenido de tocoles previstos fueron 8.87%, 31,86 mg·Kg-1 y 2059,92 mg·Kg-1 respectivamente.