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[en] Most wind farms consist of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) due to the high power coefficient (mechanical power output divided by the power of the free-stream air through the turbine cross-sectional area) of an isolated turbine. However when in close proximity to neighboring turbines, HAWTs suffer from a reduced power coefficient. In contrast, previous research on vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) suggests that closely spaced VAWTs may experience only small decreases (or even increases) in an individual turbine's power coefficient when placed in close proximity to neighbors, thus yielding much higher power outputs for a given area of land. A potential flow model of inter-VAWT interactions is developed to investigate the effect of changes in VAWT spatial arrangement on the array performance coefficient, which compares the expected average power coefficient of turbines in an array to a spatially isolated turbine. A geometric arrangement based on the configuration of shed vortices in the wake of schooling fish is shown to significantly increase the array performance coefficient based upon an array of 16 x 16 wind turbines. The results suggest increases in power output of over one order of magnitude for a given area of land as compared to HAWTs.
[en] Highlights: ► Introducing wind farm layout optimization with different hub height wind turbines. ► Considering both maximum power output and minimum cost/power as objective functions. ► Using both nested and real code genetic algorithms. ► Using both single and multi-objective optimizations. - Abstract: Layout optimization is one of the methods to increase wind farm’s utilization rate and power output. Previous researches have revealed that different hub height wind turbines may increase wind farm’s power output. However, few researches focus on optimizing a wind farm’s layout in a two-dimensional area using different hub height wind turbines. In this paper, the authors first investigate the effect of using different hub height wind turbines in a small wind farm on power output. Three different wind conditions are analyzed using nested genetic algorithm, where the results show that power output of the wind farm using different hub height wind turbines will be increased even when the total numbers of wind turbines are same. Different cost models are also taken into account in the analysis, and results show that different hub height wind turbines can also improve cost per unit power of a wind farm. At last, a large wind farm with commercial wind turbines is analyzed to further examine the benefits of using different hub height wind turbines in more realistic conditions
[en] Assessing the potential impacts of proposed offshore wind farm developments on seabird populations requires estimation of nocturnal flight activity of seabirds for input into collision risk models. One of the seabirds considered most at risk from collision with offshore wind turbines is the northern gannet Morus bassanus. The recommended correction for gannet nocturnal flight activity is currently a highly precautionary value. Here we use data from tracking studies to derive evidence-based correction factors for nocturnal flight activity of adult gannets during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons, and of immature gannets during the summer prospecting phase. Flight and diving activity of gannets was minimal during the night, astronomical and nautical twilight, for adults during the breeding season and nonbreeding season, and for immatures. Some flight activity occurred during the short period of civil twilight, but on average at about half the level seen during the day. Based on evidence from numerous tracking studies, we recommend that precautionary values of the nocturnal (sunset to sunrise) flight activity factor for estimating collision risk should be 8% of daytime flight activity during the breeding season and 3% of daytime flight activity during the nonbreeding season. Use of these evidence-based correction factors will improve the accuracy, and reduce the uncertainty of collision risk models, providing a more reliable assessment of the impacts of offshore wind farms on gannets.
[en] The most important hazard for a bat is the collision with a rotating blade. The risk of collision depends on the wrong positioning of a wind turbine in the hunting area of a local population of bats and on the complex behaviour of bats. All the 34 species of bats living in France are protected species. Recommendations issued by the ministry of ecology include to perform preliminary impact studies on bat population before the installation of a wind turbine farm, to perform impact studies during wind turbine operations and to take measures to have the least impact as possible. The number of wind farms being on the rise, the knowledge of the behaviour of bats is getting more accurate through the use of dedicated instruments. (A.C.)
[en] In ECN's scaled wind farm the wake evolution is studied in two different situations. A single wake is studied at two different locations downstream of a turbine and a single wake is studied in conjunction with a triple wake. Here, the wake is characterized by the relative wind speed, the turbulence intensity, the vertical wind speed and the turbulence (an)isotropy. Per situation all wake measurements are taken simultaneously together with the inflow conditions
[en] Highlights: • Innovative optimization procedures for both regular and irregular shape wind farm. • Using real wind condition and commercial wind turbine parameters. • Using multiple-objective genetic algorithm optimization method. • Optimize the selection of different wind turbine types and their hub heights. - Abstract: Layout optimization has become one of the critical approaches to increase power output and decrease total cost of a wind farm. Previous researches have applied intelligent algorithms to optimizing the wind farm layout. However, those wind conditions used in most of previous research are simplified and not accurate enough to match the real world wind conditions. In this paper, the authors propose an innovative optimization method based on multi-objective genetic algorithm, and test it with real wind condition and commercial wind turbine parameters. Four case studies are conducted to investigate the number of wind turbines needed in the given wind farm. Different cost models are also considered in the case studies. The results clearly demonstrate that the new method is able to optimize the layout of a given wind farm with real commercial data and wind conditions in both regular and irregular shapes, and achieve a better result by selecting different type and hub height wind turbines.
[en] The wind-power potential of Quebec is immense - approximately 200 000 MW - but its cost is not competitive with the cost of hydroelectric power. However, it has potential for use in isolated communities. In Kuujjuaq a Danish windmill of 65 kW specially adapted for the rigors of the northern Quebec climate produced 250 000 kW in 14 000 hours of operation, saving 80 000 l of diesel fuel. Kuujjuaq's electricity requirements could be met by 20 such wind generators. Previously Hydro-Quebec has tested large wind generators and found them structurally unable to stand up to the winds they encountered, and uneconomical. Wind generator arrays appear to be more practical for Quebec's needs. (L.L.)
[en] Estimates of the global wind power resource over land range from 56 to 400 TW. Most estimates have implicitly assumed that extraction of wind energy does not alter large-scale winds enough to significantly limit wind power production. Estimates that ignore the effect of wind turbine drag on local winds have assumed that wind power production of 2–4 W m−2 can be sustained over large areas. New results from a mesoscale model suggest that wind power production is limited to about 1 W m−2 at wind farm scales larger than about 100 km2. We find that the mesoscale model results are quantitatively consistent with results from global models that simulated the climate response to much larger wind power capacities. Wind resource estimates that ignore the effect of wind turbines in slowing large-scale winds may therefore substantially overestimate the wind power resource. (letter)
[en] As a result of a planning application for a wind farm comprising 20 wind turbines at Tynewydd Farm, Gilfach Goch in Mid Glamorgan, it became necessary to produce a Report discussing any detrimental effects the proposal might have on UHF television reception. In order to make that Report as definitive as possible, it was decided to carry out field tests on the exact model of wind turbine to be used to Tynewydd. This required a field trip to Denmark, and the opportunity was taken to make measurements on two other models of turbine at the same time. This Report presents the analysis of the results for all three turbines. (Author)
[en] The paper presents research conducted in the Flow workpackage of the EU funded UPWIND project which focuses on improving models of flow within and downwind of large wind farms in complex terrain and offshore. The main activity is modelling the behaviour of wind turbine wakes in order to improve power output predictions