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[en] The Linac Coherent Light Source is an x-ray free-electron laser that recently demonstrated lasing in the 1.5-15 A wavelength range. We report on luminescence measurements of a molecular nitrogen gas irradiated by ∼2 mJ, 80 fs x-ray pulses at energies of 0.83, 2.7, and 8.3 keV. These results provide a direct test of our current understanding of photoabsorption, electron dynamics, and fluorescence processes for such intense, ultrashort x-ray pulses. At 0.83 keV, the duration of the fluorescence signal depends strongly on space-charge effects. At 8.3 keV, space-charge effects are weak, and the signal duration is determined by the Auger electron dynamics.