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[en] This Thesis reports on three measurements involving the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen and deuterium conducted on a 5.8 K atomic beam. The transition is excited Doppler-free via two counter-propagating photons near 243 nm. The H/D isotope shift has been determined as Δ∫exp=670 994 334 606(15) Hz. Comparing with the theoretical value for the isotope shift, excluding the leading nuclear size effect, Δ∫th=670 999 566.90(66)(60) kHz we confirm, twice more accurate, the rms charge radius difference of the deuteron and the proton as left angle r2 right angle d- left angle r2 right angle p=3.82007(65) fm2 and the deuteron structure radius rstr=1.97507(78) fm. The frequency ratio of the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen to the cesium ground state hyperfine transition provided by the mobile cesium fountain clock FOM is measured to be ∫1S-2S=2 466 061 413 187 035 (10) Hz which presents a fractional frequency uncertainty of 4.2 x 10-15. The second absolute frequency measurement of the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen presents the first application of a 900 km fiber link between MPQ and Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig which we have used to calibrate the MPQ hydrogen maser with the stationary cesium fountain clock CSF1 at PTB. With the result of ∫1S-2S=2 466 061 413 187 017 (11) Hz we can put a constraint on the electron Lorentz boost violating coefficients 0.95c(TX)-0.29c(TY)-0.08 c(TZ)=(2.2±1.8) x 10-11 within the framework of minimal standard model extensions. We limit a possible drift of the strong coupling constant through the ratio of magnetic moments at a competitive level (∂)/(∂t)ln (μCs)/(μB)=-(3.0±1.2) x 10-15 yr-1.