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[en] The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, the IAEA's Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations (herein referred to as international organizations), and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the present Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). IEComm is the successor to the previous Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM), first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States, have since then regularly received updates to the manual. This manual covers the communication protocols for Contact Points identified under the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, as well as the protocol for users of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Since the last edition of ENATOM, several factors have warranted some modifications to the existing arrangements: changes due to lessons identified from experience in exchanging information during incidents and emergencies, responding to requests for information and assistance during nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies in the past few years, the Unified System for Information Exchange in Incidents and Emergencies (USIE) for Contact Points and for INES national officers, revision of the Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (Joint Plan), and changes to better reflect that emergency situations can arise from both accidents and criminal and other unauthorized acts. The General Conference of the IAEA in resolution GC(49)/RES/9 requested ''the Secretariat to continue to review and, as necessary, streamline its mechanisms for reporting and for sharing information?' and encouraged '?Member States to do the same.' In 2007 the General Conference of the IAEA, in resolution GC(51)/RES/11, welcomed the ''decision to develop a global, unified incident and emergency reporting system which combines the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM) arrangements and the Nuclear Events Web-based System (NEWS) mechanism''. In resolution GC(54)/RES/7 the General Conference of the IAEA requested to ''the Secretariat to continue its efforts to finalize and implement a global and unified system for reporting and sharing information on nuclear and radiological accidents and incidents, and to act upon the feedback provided by Member States''. The General Conference of the IAEA, in resolution GC(54)/RES/7, also encouraged ''all Member States to enhance, where necessary, their own preparedness and response capabilities for nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies, by improving capabilities to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences and, where necessary, to request support from the Secretariat or from other Member States in developing national capabilities consistent with international standards, and urges all Member States to take part in these exercises''. The General Conference in resolution GC(55)/RES/9 ''urges Member States to reinforce emergency notification, reporting and information sharing arrangements and capabilities utilizing USIE''