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[en] Highlights: • We proposed an independent and simultaneous environmental control method. • A local environmental control system was designed for the relic preservation. • We revisited the optimal conservation environment for in situ relics. • Performances of the independent environment control systems were studied. • The different environmental needs of visitors and relics were simultaneously satisfied. - Abstract: The indoor thermal requirements in archaeology museum buildings mainly take into account the comfort of visitors and the preservation of the in situ relics. However, the environmental conditions for the thermal comfort of visitors are usually inconsistent with those for the appropriate preservation of relics, and the specialized needs of the latter are usually ignored due to financial and technological limitations. In this paper, the recommended environmental conditions for preserving relics were revisited, and the criterion of optimal conservation of in situ relics by establishing the equilibrium of heat and mass in the air–soil coupled environment according to the primitive soil environment parameters was presented. Based on these various requirements, an independent environmental control method employing a split air conditioning system for visitor comfort and a capillary radiant system for relic preservation was proposed. A laboratory room consisting of a funerary pit and the above-mentioned air conditioning (A/C) systems for separate human comfort and relic preservation was constructed to simulate a large open exhibition hall of an archaeology museum. Experimental studies have been carried out to examine the feasibility and performance of the method. The results show that both A/C systems could be operated independently with different working parameters and operation models. Additionally, the different environmental needs of visitors and relics were simultaneously satisfied with this energy-saving method.