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[en] It was shown that groundwater in Jianghan Plain was severely contaminated by arsenic; however, little is known about the mechanism by which the mineral arsenic was mobilized and released into groundwater from the high-arsenic sediments in this area. Here, we collected sediment samples from the depths of 5–230 m in Jianghan Plain. Although all of the samples contain high contents of total arsenic, the soluble arsenic was only detectable in few of the shallow sediments, but was readily detectable in all of the deep sediments at the depths of 190–230 m. Analysis of the genes of arsenate-respiring reductases indicated that they were not present in all of the shallow sediments from the depths of 5–185 m, but were detectable in all of the deep sediments from the depths of 190–230 m; all of the identified reductase genes are new or new-type, and they display unique diversity. Microcosm assay indicated that the microbial communities from the deep sediments were able to reduce As(V) into As(III) using lactate, formate, pyruvate or acetate as an electron donor under anaerobic condition. Arsenic release assay demonstrated that these microbial communalities efficiently catalyzed the mobilization and release of the mineral arsenic into aqueous phase. We also isolated a novel cultivable dissimilatory As(V)-respiring bacterium Aeromonas sp. JH155 from the sediments. It is able to completely reduce 2.0 mM As(V) into As(III) in 72 h, and efficiently promote the reduction and release of the mineral arsenic into aqueous phase. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that the deep sediments contain diversities of microbial communities, which were shaped by the environmental factors, such as As, SO42−, NO3−, Fe and pH value. These data suggest that the microorganisms in the deep sediments in Jianghan Plain played key roles in the mobilization and release of insoluble arsenic into the groundwater. - Highlights: • As(V)-respiring reductase genes only exist in deep sediments of Jianghan Plain. • Microorganisms from deep sediments involved in arsenic mobilization and release. • The microbial communities were shaped by As, SO42−, NO3−, Fe and pH value. • A novel arsenate-respiring bacterium JH155 was isolated. • JH155 efficiently catalyzed the mobilization and reduction of mineral arsenic.