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[en] Highlights: • 3 mol% Dy3+ doped cobalt niobate (CoNb2O6) compound has been synthesized by molten salt method. • The synthesized submicron CoNb2O6:Dy3+ particles were successfully incorporated into Polyamide 6 fibers by using electrospinning technique. • The smallest fiber diameter was gained from the solution including 0.1 g CoNb2O6:Dy3+ (applied voltage 38 kV, 15.5 cm distance). • Mechanical properties of the structures were highly correlated with the fiber characteristics and also fiber size (diameter) distribution. • Optical analysis of electrospun nanofibrous webs showed that the emission intensity increased by increasing CoNb2O6:Dy3+ phosphor content. - Abstract: 3 mol% Dy3+ doped cobalt niobate (CoNb2O6) compound has been synthesized by molten salt method using Li2SO4/Na2SO4 salt mixture as a flux at a relatively low temperature as compared to solid state reaction. X-ray diffraction patterns of 3 mol% Dy3+ doped CoNb2O6 compound indicated orthorhombic columbite single phase. SEM analysis revealed that Dy3+ doped CoNb2O6 has a submicron particle size. The photoluminescence of CoNb2O6:Dy3+ phosphor has exhibited in a dominant yellow emission at 579 nm with an excitation wavelength of 366 nm. The synthesized submicron phosphor particles were successfully incorporated into Polyamide 6 fibers by utilizing electrospinning technique. The average fiber diameter obtained through the process ranged between 192 ± 62 nm and 387 ± 341 nm. Mechanical characteristics of the produced nanofibrous webs were strongly influenced by the fiber morphologies and size (diameter) distribution rather than the phosphor particles incorporated into the fibers and/or located on the web. The photoluminescence of composite fiber material increased with the increasing phosphor content.