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[en] Highlights: • Electrospinning Technique: Current state-of-the-art. • 1D TiO2 nanofibers. • Experimental Approaches. • Application towards energy conversion, energy storage, environmental and biomedical applications. - Abstract: One dimensional (1D) metal oxide nanostructures (1D-MONS) play a key role in the development of functional devices including energy conversion, energy storage and environmental devices. They are also used for some important biomedical products like wound dressings, filter media, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The electrospinning (ES) is the versatile technique for making of 1D growth of nanostructured nanofibers, an experimental approach and its applications. The present review is focused on the 1D growth of nanostructured nanofibers in different applications like dye sensitized solar cells, perovskite solar cells, fuel cells, lithium ion batteries, redox flow batteries, supercapacitor, photocatalytic, and gas sensors based on ZnO, TiO2, MnO2, WO3, V2O5, NiO, SnO2, Fe2O3 etc. metal oxides, their composites and carbon. This review article presents an introduction to various types of ES techniques and their technical details. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of each ES technique are summarized. The various technical details such as preparative parameters, post-deposition methods, applied electric field, solution feed rate and a distance between a tip to the collector are the key factors in order to obtain exotic 1D nanostructured materials. Also, the lucid literature survey on the growth of nanostructures of various metal oxides and application in different fields are covered in this review. Further, the future perspectives has also been discussed.