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[en] Highlights: • Novel strategy to improve the specificity of GQDs towards dopamine was developed. • Molecularly imprinted graphene quantum dots composites with boronic acid groups were facilely synthesized. • The dopamine could lead to fluorescence quenching of MIPs@ PIn-BAc/GQDs selectively. • MIPs@ PIn-BAc/GQDs sensor offered a millimicromole level detection for dopamine in biological systems. - Abstract: A novel fluorescence sensor was developed for dopamine (DA) determination based on molecularly imprinted graphene quantum dots and poly(indolylboronic acid) composite (MIPs@ PIn-BAc/GQDs). When the DA is added to the system, it leads to an aggregation and fluorescence quenching of the MIPs@ PIn-BAc/GQDs because of the covalent binding between the catechol group of DA and boronic acid. Such fluorescence behaviors are used for well testing DA in a range from 5 × 10−9 to 1.2 × 10−6 M with the detection limit of 2.5 × 10−9 M. Furthermore, the prepared sensors could well against the interferences from various biomolecules and be successfully used for the assay of DA in human biological samples, exhibiting excellent specificity. It is believed that the prepared MIPs@ PIn-BAc/GQDs hold great promise as a practical platform that can monitor DA level change.