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[en] Background: Fat grafting experiences a regeneration process from free lipoaspirate to intact adipose tissue. The adipose extracellular matrixes (ECM) provide the structure and biochemical support for surrounding cells; inflammatory cells, like macrophages, regulate the process. Our hypothesis states that transferred fat undergoes ECM remodeling after fat grafting and this process is regulated by macrophage infiltration. Methods: Lipoaspirate was injected subcutaneously into the back of nude mice. The micro-structure of the fat grafts was observed and evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and collagen I immunohistostaining. The gene transcription level of collagen proteins and the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were assessed by qRT-PCR. Local injection of clodronate-encapsulated liposome was used to evaluate the role of macrophages of fat grafts at different stages in ECM remodeling, depletion of macrophages, at different time points (Week 1 and Week 4). Results: Results from the SEM analysis showed that liposuction caused severe damage to the ECM structure in freshly aspirated adipose tissue. On Day 1 post-transplantation, the surface of adipocytes was covered with platelets and this secreted fibrin network on the fat grafts. An integral adipose structure was already established with an intact ECM at the end of Week 1. The early depletion of macrophages remarkably hindered ECM reconstruction process by down-regulating the expression of collagen proteins and MMPs. Expression of Collagen I was significantly decreased after depletion of macrophages in both gene and protein levels. Results also showed that the depletion of macrophages at the later stage of fat grafting resulted in less fibrosis and capsule formation. Conclusion: Free fat aspirates undergo a prompt ECM reconstruction process and completed in the first week; this process can be initiated with platelets and mainly modulated by inflammatory cells such as macrophages. It was also observed that prolonged macrophage infiltration contributes to fibrosis and capsule formation in fat grafts. - Highlights: • Free fat aspirates undergo a prompt ECM reconstruction process in the first week. • The ECM reconstruction process is initiated with platelets and modulated by macrophages. • Depletion of macrophage in transferred fat resulted in delayed ECM reconstruction.