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[en] Increasing research has shown a link between viruses and miRNAs, such as miRNA-146a, in regulating virus infection and replication. In the current study, the association between miR-146a and hantaan virus (HTNV) infection in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated, with a focus on examining the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The results showed that HTNV infection promoted the production of miR-146a in HUVECs and activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling, along with the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 8 (IL-8), C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 5 (CCL5, also RANTES), interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and interferon beta (IFN-β). Moreover, miR-146a exhibited a negative regulatory effect on the NF-κB pathway. Accordingly, a miR-146a inhibitor increased the expression of IL-8, CCL5, IP-10 and IFN-β, whereas a miR-146a mimic reduced the levels of these cytokines. Consequently, exogenous transduction of miR-146a significantly enhanced HTNV replication in HUVEC cells. We also discovered that viral proteins (NP/GP) contributed to miR-146a expression via enhancement the activity of miR-146a promoter. In conclusion, these results imply the negative regulation of miR-146a on the production of HTNV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines contributes to virus replication, which suggest that miR-146a may be regarded as a novel therapeutic target for HTNV infection. - Highlights: • Hantavirus infection increased miR-146a levels in HUVEC cells. • Hantavirus infection activated NF-κB signal and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HUVEC cells. • miR-146a had the negative regulation to NF-κBp65, IL-8, CCL5, IP-10, and IFN-β and promote the replication of hantavirus. • Expression of hantaviral proteins (NP/GP) stimulated the activity of miR-146a and NF-κB promoters.