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[en] A highly efficient transparent heater was intensively studied by optimizing a solution-processed indium tin oxide nanoparticles (ITO-NPs) film with oxygen vacancy control. To control the oxygen vacancy, ITO-NPs layers coated onto glass substrates was annealed under various atmospheric conditions such as vacuum, air, and argon (Ar). In result, all the solution-processed ITO films achieved high transparency of more than 96% in the visible range (500–730 nm) with respect to the glass substrate. As well, sheet resistance (Rs) decreased with increasing temperature and the lowest Rs (309.4 Ω/□) was achieved by annealing at 600 °C under Ar atmosphere. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the highest concentration of oxygen vacancies occurred under Ar atmosphere resulting in the highest carrier mobility and lowest Rs. Furthermore, application of the ITO-NPs films to transparent heater was attempted. In result, when applying 15 V, ITO-NPs film annealed under Ar atmosphere, showing the lowest Rs, exhibited the highest temperature (215.1 °C) among the samples. Also, highly thermal efficiency of 162.9 °C/(W/cm2) were achieved from the optimized sample. Thus, we suggest that the optimized ITO-NPs film was applicable to highly efficient transparent heater. - Highlights: • Highly efficient transparent heater was made with solution-processed ITO-NPs film. • Oxygen vacancy of ITO film was optimized with heat-treatment under Ar atmosphere. • The lowest Rs(309.4 Ω/□) and highest T550(96%) were achieved with Ar atmosphere. • High heat-generating temperature (215.1 °C) was achieved with Ar atmosphere. • Highly thermal efficiency (162.9 °C/(W/cm2)) was achieved with Ar atmosphere.