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[en] Highlights: • A rapid and highly sensitive monitoring system for radioxenon isotopes was developed. • The adsorption at 77 K were adopted to improve the adsorption efficiency of xenon. • This system could rapidly and efficiently separate and measure radioxenon on-site. • The MDC of 133Xe is only 1/18000 to 1/800 of those obtained with other similar systems. • The analysis cycle is one fortieth of that of OSI systems, for example, XESPM-III. - Abstract: The rapid monitoring of radioactive gas is one of the most direct and sensitive methods used to characterize the leakage of nuclear installations, and its technical difficulty lies in achieving the goals of rapid and high sensitivity as much as possible. Several techniques, including adsorption at ultralow temperatures, impurity removal with hollow fiber membranes, and on-site measurements with low background, were used to develop a rapid and highly sensitive monitoring system for radioxenon isotope. This system could simultaneously separate xenon from air and measure radioxenon isotopes in a rapid and efficient way. The technical specifications of this system are as follows: the recovery of stable xenon is greater than 70%; and the MDCs of 133Xe and 135Xe are 4.3 Bq/m3 and 0.4 Bq/m3 within a 30 min cycle of sampling and testing, respectively. It is worth noting that the MDC of 133Xe here is only approximately 1/18000 to 1/800 of those obtained with other similar equipment, and the monitoring period of this system is one fortieth of that of noble gas equipment for OSI, for example, XESPM-III. As a result, the standard uncertainties are less than 16%. The system developed in this paper can be applied in leakage monitoring of nuclear facilities and can also provide instructive technical support for other tests, such as nuclear safety monitoring and evaluation.