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[en] The precipitates of second phases with coherent or incoherent interfaces can interact with dislocations to act as slip obstacles that can significantly improve the mechanics properties of alloys. In this work, the first-principles calculations based on density functional theory were performed to characterize the precipitate/Vanadium interface in the vanadium alloys and uncovering how structure of precipitations and interfacial defects (vacancy or solutes) distribution influence on the effectiveness of precipitation strengthening. Based the Baker-Nutting orientation relationship, the equilibrium stable precipitate/matrix interface structure are obtained. It is found that the so-called layer buckling exists in the interfacial region. Meanwhile, considering the equilibrium interface structure, the compressive strain is taken up by the Ti-based precipitation in the interface. For V-based precipitations, on the contrary, the interfacial strain is reversed that the tensile strain is taken up by the V-based precipitations. Under the uniaxial tensile loading, the stress-strain relations of heterostructures with different kinds of precipitates MX (M = Ti, V and X = C, N) are obtained to characterize the precipitation strengthening in the Vanadium alloys. The ideal tensile strength for heterostructure is sensitive to the size of precipitation. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that Ti-based precipitations not only improve the tensile strength, but also meliorate the ductility of the V alloys, which pointing to the inference that Ti-based precipitations are more effective to strengthen the V alloys than V-based precipitations. Our findings from this study can be implemented into providing the theoretical strategy for further design of the new style alloys.