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[en] The CaSO4:Ce3+ (1-9mol%) nanorods were successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method. Preliminary crystallographic, structural and optical studies of the prepared nanorods were done using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL). The CaSO4:Ce3+ has a single phase hexagonal lattice structure with space group P3121(152). The average crystallite size was calculated using Scherrer’s formula and found to be in the range 41-62 nm which is in good agreement with TEM results. The SEM micrographs shows rod like structure with various sizes. Upon 350 nm excitation, the CaSO4:Ce3+ nanophosphor showed emission at 390, 405 and 430 nm, which is characteristic luminescence of (2F5/2, 2F7/2) transitions of the Ce3+ ions. The chromaticity co-ordinates and correlated color temperature of all the phosphors were well located in blue region. TL glow curve response of the prepared nanorods with 500 Gy -irradiated was studied. TL glow curve contains glow peak at 188 °C. Kinetic parameters was estimated for deconvoluted TL glow peaks and studied in detail.