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[en] Highlights: • Large-scale synthesis of Fe1−xS nanostructures is successfully introduced. • The structural features can be perfectly inherited after sulfurization. • The Fe1−xS nanostructure manifests appealing electrochemical performance. • The pseudocapacitance contribution interprets the unprecedented rate capability. • A sodium full cell shows a superior capacity retention and cycling stability. As a potential alternative to the prevailing lithium ion batteries, the application of sodium (Na) ion batteries (NIBs) in renewable energy and smart grid have revitalized research interest for large-scale energy storage. One of the roadblocks hindering their future commercialization is the development of suitable anode materials. Herein, we present the large-scale preparation of highly uniform iron sulfide (Fe1−xS) nanostructures by a cost-effective and versatile one-step sulfurization strategy. Impressively, as a high-rate and viable sodium-ion anode, the as-prepared Fe1−xS nanostructure manifests appealing electrochemical performance (a high discharge capacity of 563 mA h g−1 over 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g−1 and outstanding cycling stability even at high rate of 10 A g−1 up to 2000 cycles). Moreover, the proven pseudocapacitance contribution interprets the unprecedented rate capability. Meanwhile, the sodium storage mechanism in the as-prepared samples has also been investigated by using the in-situ X-ray diffraction techniques. Remarkably, a full cell based on Na0.6Co0.1Mn0.9O2 cathode and Fe1−xS anode deliver high discharge capacity (393 mA h g−1) and superior cycling stability.