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[en] This paper concerns with the enhancement of a safe and clean procedure for remediation of water pollution. Cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning technique prior to surface modification with polyaniline/β-cyclodextrin (PANI/β-CD) nanocomposite. Morphology and structure of the modified CA nanofibers were characterized by different analysis like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). We studied the influence of modification of CA with PANI/β-CD nanocomposite for removal of cationic dyes from colored aqueous solution in dynamic batch mode. Methylene blue (MB) dye was selected as a cationic dye model for the study. The effects of various parameters like pH, nanosorbent dose, dye concentration and reaction time on the adsorption capacity were studied. Some mathematical isotherm and kinetic models have been utilized to investigate the adsorption mechanism of MB into the CA-PANI/β-CD nanofibers. The reusability of the CA-PANI/β-CD nanofibers was also verified in sequent cycles and rapid process was detected. Different real water samples like tap water, industrial wastewater, municipal wastewater and sea water were applied to test the MB removal efficiency.