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[en] Environmental fluctuations and toxin-producing phytoplankton are crucial factors affecting marine ecosystems. In this paper, we propose a stochastic phytoplankton-toxin phytoplankton–zooplankton model to study the effect of environmental fluctuations on extinction and persistence of the population. The results show that large environmental fluctuations may lead to the extinction of the population, and small environmental fluctuation can keep population weakly persistent in the mean. We also find that the noise-induced extinction of one phytoplankton population may lead to the density increase of the other phytoplankton population in two competitive phytoplankton populations. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions, we obtain the sufficient conditions for the existence of an ergodic stationary distribution of the model. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to support our main results.