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[en] As the interest of electric power self-consumption has become a matter of debate, this study first evokes pioneer experiments, and more precisely describes and discusses individual self-consumption and collective self-consumption (some examples are briefly presented with their main characteristics and features). The authors then propose an overview of the situation of self-consumption in France, its legal and regulatory framework, and its production level evolution. The next part reports an identification of breaks to the development of self-consumption, and desired evolutions by addressing the following aspects: complexity of self-production, favourable context for the implementation of a business model, favourable technical context for individual self-consumption (housing and companies), issues related to collective self-consumption, social-cultural obstacles, necessity to make the regulation evolve, role of local communities (examples are given). Propositions are formulated for these different aspects. The next part discusses the impact on energy transition: impacts on the grid, relationship between self-consumption and energy transition, development of citizen-based energetic communities.