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[en] The objective of study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of helical computed tomography and ultrasonography in acute appendicitis using histopathology as gold standard. Thirty cases of clinically suspected acute appendicitis were included in the study selected on non probability convenience sampling technique. Computed tomography and graded compression ultrasonography of right lower quadrant of abdomen were conducted and results compared with histopathological findings. Amongst 30 patients who underwent computed tomography and graded compression ultrasonography examinations of right lower quadrant for diagnosis of acute appendicitis, on computed tomography 19 were diagnosed with acute appendicitis, 10 were diagnosed as not having the disease and 01 patient diagnosed as not having appendicitis on computed tomography did not improve clinically, was operated upon and histopathology proved it as acute appendicitis. While on graded compression ultrasonography 15 were diagnosed with acute appendicitis, 11 were diagnosed as not having the disease and 04 patients diagnosed as not having appendicitis on ultrasonography, did not improve clinically, were operated upon and histopathology proved it as acute appendicitis. This showed that CT scan has sensitivity of 95%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 90.91% and overall accuracy of 96.67% while ultrasonography has sensitivity of 78.9%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 73.33% and overall accuracy of 86.67%. We concluded that Helical computed tomography is highly accurate in diagnosing acute appendicitis as compared to ultrasonography and it helps to reduce negative appendectomy rate. (author)
[en] The present study was conducted for development of biofertilizer from soil rhizospheric microorganisms in organic waste as carrier material and its application in agriculture development. The bacteria were isolated from rice rhizosphere from NIBGE field experiments. Some of the isolates of sunflower were collected from BIRCEN culture collection. The morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied. The bacteria were also characterized for their biochemical characteristics regarding nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization and indole acetic acid (IAA) production. These isolates were used for Biofertilizer production. Press mud from sugar industry was used as a carrier material to carry these inoculums. The carrier material was ground to a fine powder of 100 mesh size and weighted quantity of mud was packed in polythene bags. Then appropriate amount of approximately 5% the inoculum was injected to the packed polythene bags through injectors. The inoculated polythene bags were mixed by mixer and were sealed through electric sealer. The prepared polythene bags of biofertilizer were stored at cool and dry place away from sunlight, as these inoculum polythene bags may be damaged at higher temperature. (author)
[en] Mixed Cu-Zn ferrites (for x = 0.66 to 0.99) are prepared by the double sintering ceramic method. Locally available low cost Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with 0.5wt% of Si additive is used for this purpose which reduced the process price markedly and improves the properties of the ferrite produced. The chemical phase analysis carried out by X-ray powder diffraction method confirms the major phase of Cu-Zn ferrite structure. Lattice parameters, X-ray density and mass density along with porosity have been investigated to study the effect of composition. Lattice parameters shows a decreasing trend with increasing Cu content, x. whereas, both X-ray density and mass density increases with increasing x, which in turn decreases the porosity due to successive presence of Si in Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. This decrease in porosity along with chemical homogeneities, distribution of phases and grain formation were also observed from Scanning electron micrographs at different magnifications. (author)
[en] To assess the relationship of postdialysis serum sodium level and interdialytic weight gain in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 50 adult patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled for the study with nonprobability convenience sampling technique. Pre-, post- and pre-next dialysis serum sodium were measured in each patient and their weights were recorded. Intradialytic sodium gains (delta Na1=postdialysis minus pre-dialysis sodium), interdialytic sodium fall (delta Na2 = previous postdialysis sodium minus pre subsequent dialysis sodium), and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) (IDWG = weight, pre subsequent dialysis weight minus previous postdialysis weight) were computed. The relationship between delta Na1 and delta Na 2 with interdialytic weight gain was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient. There were 26 males and 24 females. The mean age of the patients was 49.6 +- 14.5 years, and mean duration of HD was 40.9 +- 40.8 months. The mean sodium gain during the session (delta Na1) was 4.0 +- 3.1 and mean sodium fall in interdialytic period (delta Na2) was 4.2 +- 2.7. The mean interdialytic weight gain was 2 +- 0.8 Kg. The relationship between delta Na1 and delta Na2 with interdialytic weight gain was statistically non-significant (r=0.048, p=0.739 and r =0.019, P =0 .897 respectively). The trend towards higher post dialysis serum sodium level and interdialytic weight gain was not statistically significant. Studies are needed with measurement of serum osmolality and investigation of other factors affecting interdialytic weight gain like dietary habits and medication etc. (author)
[en] We have discussed the dynamical instability of a collapsing spherical object in the Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity. The linear perturbation method is used to construct the collapse equation from the field equations and conservation equations. The instability range for adiabatic index Γ has been investigated by considering Newtonian and Post-Newtonian limits. The relativistic correction of dissipation reduces instability, while the Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations due to dissipation increase the instability range of adiabatic index Γ. The Gauss-Bonnet term α plays a dominant role in increasing the instability of the spherical object.
[en] The accretion of test fluids flowing onto a black hole is investigated. Particularly, by adopting a dynamical Hamiltonian approach, we are capable to find the critical points for various cases of black hole in conformal gravity. In these cases, we have analyzed the general solutions of accretion employing the isothermal equations of state. The steady state and spherically symmetric accretion of different test fluids onto the conformal gravity black hole has been considered. Further, we have classified these flows in the context of equations of state and the cases of conformal gravity black hole. The new behavior of polytropic fluid accretion is also discussed in all three cases of black hole. Black hole mass accretion rate is the most important part of this research in which we have investigated that the Schwarzschild black hole produce a typical signature than the conformal gravity black hole and Schwarzschild–de Sitter black hole. The critical fluid flow and the mass accretion rate have been presented graphically by the impact parameters β, γ, k and these parameters have great significance. Additionally, the maximum mass rate of accretion fall near the universal and Killing horizons and minimum rate of accretion occurs in between these regions. Finally, the results are compared with the different cases of black hole available in the literature.
[en] The Einstein Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity is the low-energy limit of heterotic super-symmetric string theory. This paper deals with gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity by considering the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. For this purpose, the closed form of the exact solution of the equations of motion has been determined by using the conservation of the stress-energy tensor and the condition of marginally bound shells. It has been investigated that the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet coupling term α > 0 and the pressure of the fluid modifies the structure and time formation of singularity. In this analysis a singularity forms earlier than a horizon, so the end state of the collapse is a naked singularity depending on the initial data. But this singularity is weak and timelike, which goes against the investigation of general relativity. (orig.)
[en] Few years ago, Setare (2006) has investigated the Cardy-Verlinde formula of noncommutative black hole obtained by noncommutativity of coordinates. In this paper, we apply the same procedure to a noncommutative black hole obtained by the coordinate coherent approach. The Cardy-Verlinde formula is entropy formula of conformal field theory in an arbitrary dimension. It relates the entropy of conformal field theory to its total energy and Casimir energy. In this paper, we have calculated the total energy and Casimir energy of noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole and have shown that entropy of noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole horizon can be expressed in terms of Cardy-Verlinde formula
[en] In a recent paper, Herrera (Phys Rev D 97:044010, 2018) have proposed a new definition of complexity for static self-gravitating fluid in general relativity. In the present article, we implement this definition of complexity for static self-gravitating fluid to case of f(R) gravity. Here, we found that in the frame of f(R) gravity the definition of complexity proposed by Herrera, entirely based on the quantity known as complexity factor which appears in the orthogonal splitting of the curvature tensor. It has been observed that fluid spheres possessing homogenous energy density profile and isotropic pressure are capable to diminish their the complexity factor. We are interested to see the effects of f(R) term on complexity factor of the self-gravitating object. The gravitating source with inhomogeneous energy density and anisotropic pressure have maximum value of complexity. Further, such fluids may have zero complexity factor if the effects of inhomogeneity in energy density and anisotropic pressure cancel the effects of each other in the presence of f(R) dark source term. Also, we have found some interior exact solutions of modified f(R) field equations satisfying complexity criterium and some applications of this newly concept to the study of structure of compact objects are discussed in detail. It is interesting to note that previous results about the complexity for static self-gravitating fluid in general relativity can be recovered from our analysis if f(R) = R, which general relativistic limit of f(R) gravity. (orig.)