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[en] Research of tracer technique development in geothermal and oil field in Indonesia was made between the International Atomic Energy Agency and Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency under the research contract No.12947/RO. The objective of the research is to validate and verify tracer techniques application in geothermal and oil field in Indonesia and to support exploitation stage for steam field management and effectiveness of re-injection wells. Tracer is an alternative technology to determine interconnection of wells in geothermal and oil field concerning to steam and oil field management. Tracer return in production wells can be used to calculate optimization of water re-injection and various useful parameters including swept volume between well pair. Some of radiotracer namely tritium, 125I, 131I and 60Co can be considered as suitable tracer in reservoir system. The last year research report contains the final result of tritium tracer test monitoring in Lahendong geothermal field and result of 125I tracer test in Dieng Geothermal field.
[en] This work was carried out to observe the effects of nitrogen supplementation from urea and soybean meal on microbial protein synthesis, and other parameters of rumen functions of the waterbuffalo. Four rations were given to four water-buffaloes assigned in 4x4 latin square design. Ration A consisted of local grass+0% urea, ration B local grass+0.7% urea, ration C local grass+1.4% urea and ration D local grass+8.5% soybean meal. The result indicated that microbial protein synthesis was significantly affected (P/0.05) by the supplementation of urea, and the utilization of N in ration B was more efficient compared to the other rations. The ammonia concentration in the rumen fluid also increased (P/0.05) as a result of urea supplementation. However, no changes were found in the total volatile fatty acids production and total protozoal counts. An increased (P/0.05) of pH in the rumen fluid was also observed in the rations B and C. (author)
[en] Determination of geothermal reservoir temperature of surface manifestation in Sumatra and Kotamobagu-North Sulawesi has been done using geothermometer isotope T18OSO4-H2O. SBY-3 (Sibayak) well temperature has also been determined as reference. Geothermometer T18OSO4-H2O method is performed by analyzing isotope 18O of H2O and 34S of sulphate ion (SO4) dissolved in the hot fluid. The value of temperature is determined using Mizutani Rafter formulation. The temperature determination result of boiling spring in Sumatra (Tambang Sawah, Waipanas, Rantau Dadap and Sarula) indicated that the temperature is above 200oC with the deep equilibrium fluid characteristic, where as the temperature of the non boiling spring indicates lower temperature (150oC) and the fluid characteristic is mixing. (authors)
[en] Sn2+ in strong H3PO4 (to be called KIBA reagent) is a powerful reducing reagent of sulphate to hydrogen sulphide. This method can be applied for quantitative analysis and determine sulphur-34 isotope from sulphur-bearing materials, either organic or anorganic. In this experiment, sulphide rocks as pyrit and pyrrhotite from were taken from West Kalimantan, sulphate rock as allunite was taken Cugung Rajabasa-Lampung, Papandayan-West Java. From sulfur concentration data as a reference analyzed X ray fluorescence spectrometer and data of first temperature which H2S gas evoluted show that Kiba reagent is most effective and faster for sulphur extraction from sulfide rocks pyrit and pyrrhotite if compared with sulfate rocks and elemental sulfur rocks. The δ 34S value for pyrit and pyrrhotite were found to be -4.619 0/00 CDT and 8.165 0/00 CDT, respectively. Allunite had δ 34S value of 3.7 0/00 CDT, and gypsum had δ 34S value 8.898 0/00 CDT. Element sulphur from Papandayan had δ 34S value of -0.745 0/00 CDT, and elemental sulphur from Cugung Rajabasa had δ 34S value of -2.945 0/00 CDT. (authors)
[en] Groundwater inside the earth contained in a porous and permeable layers called aquifers. Depend on the hydrogeological structure, the aquifers may be composed of independent layers separated each other by impermeable boundaries. Such a condition may effect the location of recharge where water is able to infiltrate and goes to the aquifers. The objective of this research is to find out and to locate the recharge area of Jakarta basin by utilizing stable isotopes 2H and 18O. The work was done by collecting shallow and deep groundwater samples throughout Jabotabek area and precipitations from different altitudes. Since the stable isotopes composition of precipitation is subject to the altitude, the recharge area would be able to be identified by assessing the correlation of stable isotopes composition of precipitation and corresponding groundwater population. The data obtained from this study suggested that shallow groundwater is originated from local recharge while deep groundwater is recharged from the area having altitude of 125 -230 meters, it correspond to the area between Depok and Bogor
[en] Investigation of the influence of aquifer interference or interaction in surrounding reservoir with the deep fluid in Kamojang geothermal field since periods time 1992 to 1998 have been conducted. Observation of the steam isotope value was done based on changed of isotopes 18O and D values. Method of investigation was carried out by means stem sampling using total condensate system 18O and D isotopes were analysed using Mass spectrometer instrument. Isotope investigation result from 1992 to 1998 periods show tahat interaction between steam reservoir and aquifer happened in margin area of the west boundary reservoir Kamojang geothermal field
[en] Interpretation Of Oxygen-18 Isotope In The Groundwater Sulphate From Upper Confined Aquifer In Jakarta Area. To study the process influencing the composition of oxygen isotope in the sulphate of groundwater of confined aquifer in Jakarta area, a determination of δ18O (SO42-) and δ18O (H2O) value from the water of the depth 40-140 m has been conducted. A method used to determine δ18O (H2O) value is Epstein-May eda method. CO2 gas resulted from equilibration process between water sample and CO2 gas standard in which oxygen isotope exchange reaction occurred, is injected to mass spectrometer. For determination of δ18O (SO42-) value, Rafter method is used. CO2 gas released from sulphate reduction of water sample with graphite is injected to mass spectrometer. From this experiment, the value of δ18O (H2O) obtained is in the range of -5.04 o/oo to - 6.65 o/oo SMOW whereas δ18O (SO42-) is +8.3 o/oo to +17.4 o/oo SMOW. By plotting both values, it seems that the data of δ18O (H2O) tend to be constant indicating that evaporation effect is not occurred. The value δ18O (SO42-) of groundwater is similar to marine evaporites rocks, it means that sulphate from groundwater is derived from dissolution of original marine evaporites. Data δ18O (SO42-) and chloride content in Pejagalan and Kamal Muara - North Jakarta indicated a modem seawater intrusion, Some areas such as Pejagalan, Kamal Muara, Pasar Minggu and Cikokol have a lower δ18O (SO42-) than original marine evaporites. Probably, it reflects a reduction of the original marine evaporites which is followed by oxidation of part of the product sulphide. Major contribution of oxygen in groundwater sulphate for this oxidation process comes from dissolution of original marine evaporites and less than 12 % is from H2O
[en] Krawang is a largest agriculture area in West Java and to increase its rice product is used some fertilizers. By using the parameter of δ 34S from some fertilizers and its sulphate groundwater, it has been done an experiment to know the correlation between its sulphate grooundwater and fertilizers used in this area. In this experiment, it lias been defined δ 34S value of some fertilizers such as ZA, NPK. TSP, urea, KCI and sulphate groundwater from shallow wells using some methods according to Kiba, Robinson-Kusakabe. Rafter. mass spectrometer and determination of total sulphur content by x-ray flourescene spectrometer. The yields obtained through this experiment show that δ 34S value some fertilizers is in tile range of -18.08 0/00 to -21 0/00 CDT and their sulphur content are 1.62 % to 24.87 % whereas the 34S value from its sulphate shallow groundwater is in the rnnge of +4,2 0/00 to +6.6 0/00 CDT and its dissolved sulphate concentration is 2.778 ppm to 25.538 ppm. Based on these data. if can be concluded that sulphate compound in this groundwater might not come from sulphur of these fertilizers. The δ 18O value of its sulphate shallow groundwater is + I 0.1 0/00 to + 12,8 0/00 SMOW. If δ 18O and δ 34S value of its sulphate groundwater are compared to their distribution in nature, it is predicted that sulphate groundwater of this site might come from rain water and its composition of sulphur 311d oxygen isotope in sulphate is influenced by sulphur redox reaction
[en] Radioactive tracer 82Br in the form of KBr-82 with activity ± 1 mCi has been injected into steel pipeline to qualify the extent dispersion of water flowing inside it. Internal diameter of the pipe is 3 in. The water source was originated from water tank through which the water flow gravitically into the pipeline. Two collimated sodium iodide detectors were used in this experiment each of which was placed on the top of the pipeline at the distance of 8 and 11 m from injection point respectively. Residence time distribution (RTD) curves obtained from injection of tracer are elaborated numerically to find information of the fluid flow properties. The transit time of tracer calculated from the mean residence time (MRT) of each RTD curves is 14.9 s, therefore the flow velocity of the water is 0.2 m/s. The dispersion number, D/uL, for each RTD curve estimated by using axial dispersion model are 0.055 and 0.06 respectively. These calculations are performed after fitting the simulated axial dispersion model on the experiment curves. These results indicated that the extent of dispersion of water flowing in the pipeline is in the category of intermediate.
[en] Purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate feasibility the use of radiotracer to measure weight of mercury in electrolytic cells of soda industry. The weight of mercury in each cell of the plant is designed approximately 1700 kg. Radiotracer is prepared by mixing 203Hg radioactive mercury with 2400 g of inactive mercury in a bath. The respective precisely weighted mercury aliquots to be injected into the cells are prepared by pouring approximately 130 g of radioactive mercury taken from the bath into 13 standard vials, in accordance with the number of the cells tested. Four standard references prepared by further dilution of ±2 g active mercury taken from the bath to obtain the dilution factors range of 12,000 to 20,000 from which the calibration graph is constructed. The injection process is conducting by pouring the radioactive mercury from aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell and allows them to mix thoroughly. It is assumed that the mass of the radiotracer injected into a closed system remains constant, at least during the period of the test. From this experiment it was observed that the mixing time is two days after injection of radioactive mercury. The inactive mercury in each electrolytic cell calculated by the radiotracer method is of the range 1351.529 kg to 1966.354 kg with maximum error (95% confidence) is 1.52 %. The accuracy of measurement of the present method is better than gravimetric one which accounts 4 % of error on average.