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[en] This paper presents the trends in occupational radiation exposure in Finland. The statistics were collected from national Dose Register and analysed using SPSS. The Finnish Dose Register includes exposure data for all workers engaged in work involving the use of radiation, in the use of nuclear energy and in work causing exposure from natural radiation. The data covers a period of over 40 years. The number of workers subject to individual monitoring working in radiation practices and nuclear energy has increased during this period. The collective doses in industry and in veterinary medicine have followed the same trend. In research and the use of X-rays in health care the collective doses initially increased from the beginning of the 1970s until the late 1990s and then decreased. During the same period the collective doses significantly decreased in the use of other radiation sources in health care. In the use of nuclear energy, collective doses have varied from year to year, mostly depending on service and maintenance works undertaken in nuclear power plants. Although the collective doses have increased in some sectors, individual annual doses of over 20 mSv do not often exist anymore and the largest individual doses have been reduced in most sectors. The number of air crew has grown during the last few years. Earlier there was only one Finnish airline notifying doses for the Dose Register, whereas nowadays there are six Finnish airlines. Because doses caused by cosmic radiation are mainly proportional to flying hours, the collective dose of air crew has increased. The dose distributions in different sectors vary considerably: in the use of radiation and nuclear energy the dose distributions are close to exponential curves, whereas for air crew it resembles almost normal distribution. (author)
[en] Regulatory control measures for nuclear materials (nuclear safeguards) at the national level in Finland are a prerequisite for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in accordance with agreements on nuclear non-proliferation, mainly described in the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The national-level regulatory control of safeguards is implemented by STUK, including measures for minor nuclear material holders. STUK maintains a national nuclear materials accountancy system, including the minor nuclear material holders. STUK verifies that the nuclear activities in Finland are carried out in accordance with Finnish nuclear legislation, European Union Safeguards Regulations and international agreements. According to the STUK requirement in Guide YVL D.1, the minor nuclear material holders are requested to prepare nuclear material handbooks. STUK approves these handbooks and the responsible person for safeguards. In the case of minor nuclear material holders, the relevant requirements are carefully discussed together, to ensure a clear understanding of the needs and expectations to be fulfilled. Minor nuclear material holders mostly have small quantities of nuclear material, mostly exempted and with no inventory changes. Finding a reliable path to implement all of the necessary safeguards measures can be challenging. However, STUK has already taken the essential steps to assist these holders in fulfilling their safeguards obligations. There were a total of 13 minor nuclear material holders in Finland by the end of 2017. Most of these holders had been granted a derogation in respect of reporting frequency by the European Commission. Almost all of them have nuclear material in the form of depleted uranium, as shielding material around transport casks for radioactive sources. The number of minor holders has dropped since the year 2000, as STUK has made systematic efforts to clarify requirements and simplify declarations to achieve best practice. (author)
[en] Finland, as a ‘non-Side-Letter State’ (non-SLS), acts as a pilot State for other non-SLS to European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and has gained experiences in testing and evaluating Protocol Reporter 3 (PR3) software and Digital Declaration Site Maps (DDSM) through the ongoing International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Member State Support Programme (MSSP) task. In 2018, Finland provided Additional Protocol (AP) declarations under INFCIRC/193/Add.8 to EURATOM and the IAEA in PR3 format and an Article 2.a.(iii) test site map for a selected site using DDSM submission for the first time. Ultimately, Finland plans to adopt DDSM for all its main sites in order to submit the site maps in a digital, spatial format compatible with the IAEA’s Geospatial Exploitation System (GES). Finland’s experiences have assisted the IAEA with starting the development of a special template for the PR3 software, and refining DDSM submission workflows, especially for non-SLS, to support their reporting obligations to EURATOM and the IAEA. The paper outlines the steps, benefits and challenges of the AP workflows based on the experiences of the State or regional authority responsible for safeguards (SRA) and site operator in Finland. These include the preparation and submission of PR3 and DDSM data. In particular, the paper highlights the findings of the operator’s workflows to convert their existing site map into the DDSM format, and the SRA’s efforts to exploit Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software for establishing capabilities to analyse operators’ DDSM data. The paper also presents initial experiences in pilot uses of PR3 software when importing and adjusting legacy data from Protocol Reporter 1. (author)
[en] In 2008, the Finnish government decided to give funding to a project for upgrading the radiation monitoring systems at the Finnish border stations. The project is scheduled for the years 2009-2014, and the total funding will be 10 million euros. The aim of the project is to enhance the radiation monitoring operation at the Finnish borders so that the ability to detect the import of radioactive substances and nuclear material is improved. In 2010, one hundred personal radiation detectors (PRDs) were purchased. The device is an easy-to-use low-price gamma and neutron detector. It has low resolution (CsI detector) spectrum acquisition and identification properties and it is capable of identifying a number of radioactive isotopes that are most typically encountered. The identified nuclides are classified as NORM, medical, industrial or Special Nuclear Materials. This is very useful for the customs officers, providing first hand information on the type of the detected radioactive material. Automatic analysis of low resolution spectra is not always reliable. Therefore for efficient use of spectral detectors it is imperative that the spectra can be delivered to the experts for a more detailed analysis. For that purpose every customs station will be equipped with a mini-PC and software for downloading the spectra from the detectors. The downloaded spectrum file is in the LML (Linssi Markup Language) format, which can be uploaded to a central database via a secure web page. An expert can review the spectrum and perform an independent analysis, and provide expert support to the customs officer in almost real time. It is envisaged that the spectrum alone provides sufficient information so that correct conclusions can be drawn quickly, and unnecessary interruptions to shipments can be avoided. In this paper the hardware, software and concept of operations are described.